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Human Trafficking

Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children

In the first decade of the 21st Century                                                           

Republic of Chad

Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Chad.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspect(s) of street life are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got there, how they survive, and how some manage to leave the street.  Perhaps your paper could focus on how some street children abuse the public and how they are abused by the public … and how they abuse each other.  Would you like to write about market children? homeless children?  Sexual and labor exploitation? begging? violence? addiction? hunger? neglect? etc.  There is a lot to the subject of Street Children.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


A Situational Analysis of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Chad [PDF]

Daniel Deuzoumbe Passalet, ECPAT International, March 2003

[accessed 5 January 2014]

[2.1.1] THE MAIN CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION IN CHAD - Prostitution increased considerably during the civil war, which lasted from 1979 to 1982. Unfavorable socio-economic factors affected the lives of most Chadians. The situation was worse depending on the size of a family, pushing fathers to neglect their duties. Unable to cope with their failure to meet basic needs, many fathers turned away from their parental responsibilities and left children to the streets. Boys became street children, known in Chad as “Colombians” (a reference to these boys’ drug consumption) and the girls to prostitution where they were exploited by many men in Chad. In addition to the war, we must mention the dictatorship of ex-President Hissein Habré (1982-1990), which led to the deaths of 40,000 victims, mostly men, which in turn led to many single parent families and a larger number of orphans.


*** ARCHIVES ***

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 28 January 2011]

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - A 2003 ECPAT study estimated that many Chadian children live in the streets and often fall victim to violence, including sexual exploitation.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 7 February 2020]

CHILDREN In 2002 UNICEF estimated that there were approximately 10 thousand street children, and in 2003 the newspaper Le Temps reported that the number was increasing. Children were on the streets because either one or both parents had died or because parents did not take care of them.

SECTION 6 WORKER RIGHTS – [d] Approximately 1 out of every 5 children between the ages of 6 and 18 worked in the urban informal sector. Children throughout the country worked in agriculture and herding. They were also employed in the commercial sector, particularly in the capital, as street vendors, manual laborers, and helpers in small shops. Young girls worked as domestic servants, mainly in N'Djamena.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 4 June 1999

[accessed 28 January 2011]

[22] With regard to the situation of children deprived of a family environment, the Committee expresses its concern at the insufficient number of alternative care centers and the lack of support and supervision of the existing ones established by non-governmental organizations. The Committee is also concerned about the conditions of children living in informal types of placement (intra-family "adoption"), whose situation is not periodically reviewed in accordance with article 25 of the Convention. The Committee recommends that the State party take all appropriate measures to establish alternative care centers for children deprived of a family environment and to set up monitoring for public and private care institutions

Ending Child Hunger: School Feeding in Chad

William Lambers, The American Chronicle, March 16, 2009

[accessed 8 Aug  2013]

Click [here] to access the book containing this article.  Its URL is not displayed because of its length

[accessed 26 November 2016]

During the 2007-2008 school year, the WFP School Feeding Program provided daily hot meals to 120,677 primary school children in more than 650 schools in the Sahelian regions of Kanem, Guera, Batha, Biltine, Ouaddai, and Guera. These regions are the most food insecure in Chad, with a chronic malnutrition rate above 45 percent.

In the east of Chad, WFP is implementing an emergency school feeding program for some 30,000 internally displaced children who have been driven away from school as a result of inter-ethnic conflicts.

The Maternal Child Health (MCH) component of the Country Program screens pupils for parasites in all targeted schools. In collaboration with UNICEF the pupils benefit from de-worming programs, HIV/AIDS prevention, and awareness education.

DISCUSS WHAT EFFECT THE MEALS HAVE ON THE CHILDREN IN TERMS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE, PERFORMANCE, AND NUTRITION - WFP meals provided at school help increase enrollment and attendance rates and reduce the gender gap in schools. Take-home rations provided to girls motivate parents to release their daughters from household responsibilities and allow them to attend school.

Hunger's global hotspots: 21 Aug 2008

World Food Programme Report, Rome, 21 August 2008

[accessed 28 April 2011]

CHAD - In early August, WFP released about 79 mt of food commodities to assist some 880 HIV/AIDS affected people in Moundou. The assistance targeted patients under ARV treatment covering their food needs for 30 days. In order to address the nutritional impact of food shortages caused by the increase in food prices on the local markets, WFP has been requested to provide, during the lean season, food assistance to 500 orphans and street children in a rehabilitation centre in N'Djamena. Provision was made to cover beneficiaries' nutritional needs in August and September 2008.

Consortium for Street Children

Consortium for Street Children, 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 28 April 2011]

Almost five percent of Chad’s population is infected with the HIV/AIDS virus and there were 18 thousand deaths from the disease in 2003. Many street children’s organizations in Chad deal with education and prevention of the disease, but Chadian street children also face increased risks to substance abuse and involvement in Chad’s ongoing civil war.

NGOs on the Streets of African Cities [PDF]

Bernard Leduc, The Interdependent Monthly No. 105, March 2002

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 28 April 2011]

[page 8] NGOs ON THE STREETS OF AFRICAN CITIES – APPERT was founded in 1994 in N’djamena with an entirely different idea, and like a good student has taken to the streets.  By meeting with children’s gang leaders on their own ground, the APPERT activists gradually earned their trust.  Using the former’s authority and knowledge of street needs, they were able after a yearlong effort to establish a neighbourhood listening ground, which soon began drawing in children.  They came for the cooking and hygiene service, to relax and most often simply to enjoy an environment in which they are welcome and safe.

Protection Project - Chad [DOC]

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The Johns Hopkins University

[accessed 2009]

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE TRAFFICKING INFRASTRUCTURE - Children in Chad are some of the most at-risk children in the world. The number of street children and children struggling to survive is growing. More than 11,000 children live in the streets and become victims of violence, exploitation, and disease. In 2002, the population of orphans living with HIV/AIDS was 72,000

A toolkit for life: Fixing Francis' future

Ngabohl Kodkandji, United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF, 22 September 2004

[accessed 28 April 2011]

"My parents divorced and, after that, my father was hardly ever at home. That all affected me badly. But I also mixed with the wrong crowd, and that's how I ended up on the streets."  For a while, this became a way of life for Francis. Once or twice - he doesn't remember how many times exactly - he tried to go back to his father but he wasn't welcome there any more.

Grownups On The Streets

Missé Nanando, ANB-BIA SUPPLEMENT, ISSUE/EDITION Nr 427 - 01/02/2002

[accessed 28 April 2011]

First, there are the former young fighters from southern Chad who have returned to civilian life following the political agreements signed with the central government.  These young people were left to fend for themselves by their former leaders.  Then, there’s the young people who have left the countryside and come into the towns seeking a better life.  Also, there are the young seasonal workers who come to N’Djamena after the harvest, and there are the young political party activists belonging to the opposition, who’ve fled from their villages after the 2001 presidential election.

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