Torture by Authorities in  [Chad]  [other countries]
Human Trafficking in  [Chad]  [other countries]

Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Published reports & articles from 2000 to 2018                              

Republic of Chad

Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Description: Description: Chad

Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Most trafficked children are subjected to domestic servitude, forced begging, forced labor in cattle herding, fishing, and street vending, and for commercial sexual exploitation. A 2005 UNICEF study on child domestic workers, including those in domestic servitude, in Ndjamena found that 62 percent were boys. Young girls sold or forced into marriage are forced by their husbands into domestic servitude and agricultural labor. Chadian children are also trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for cattle herding. Children may also be trafficked from Cameroon and the Central African Republic to Chad’s oil producing regions for sexual exploitation.  - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2009 [full country report]


CAUTION:  The following links have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Chad.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page to see which aspect(s) of Human Trafficking are of particular interest to you.  Would you like to write about Forced-Labor?  Debt Bondage? Prostitution? Forced Begging? Child Soldiers? Sale of Organs? etc.  Scan other countries as well.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Protection Project - Chad [DOC]

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The Johns Hopkins University

[Last accessed 2009]

FORMS OF TRAFFICKING - Children from Chad in Cameroon are paid as little as 3,000 CFA francs per month and required work as much as 18 hours a day. They are undernourished and sometimes sexually abused.  In early 2003, a Chadian girl who had been trafficked to Nigeria 10 years before at the age of 9 managed to escape. She had been forced into prostitution during her captivity. She reported that other Chadian girls were living under similar circumstances in Nigeria, and that the main clients for the trafficked victims were French legionnaires.

Chadian children trafficked to the Central African Republic are forced into bonded labor. During the dry season, nomadic cattlemen from northern Cameroon and central Chad traffic boys to the Central African Republic. The herdsmen approach parents either directly or through middlemen.

Children are trafficked internally within the country. One farmer in the south of Chad sold his 9-year-old daughter as a domestic servant to a ministerial representative. The girl managed to escape.

Young girls known as tallanis, who sell foodstuffs on city streets, are sometimes kidnapped for occult practices or sexual exploitation or both. Also, poor families from rural areas send their children to live with relatives or friends in the city so that the children may be educated. Often the girls are financially or sexually exploited. Girls are also brought from the countryside to work in drinking establishments, where clients sexually exploited them.


*** ARCHIVES ***

Freedom House Country Report - Political Rights: 7   Civil Liberties: 6   Status: Not Free

2018 Edition

[accessed 19 March 2019]


Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking, and the government has made minimal efforts to eliminate the problem. Children can be found engaged in forced begging and forced labor in the agricultural sector and other industries. Young girls who travel to look for work often end up either forced into prostitution or abusive domestic servitude.

2017 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 20 April 2018

[accessed 19 March 2019]

[accessed 25 June 2019]


Forced labor, including forced child labor, occurred in the informal sector. Children and adults in rural areas were involved in forced agricultural labor and, in urban areas, forced domestic servitude.


Child laborers were subjected to domestic servitude, forced begging, and forced labor in cattle herding, agriculture, fishing, and street vending. Chadian children were also found in forced cattle herding in Cameroon, the CAR, and Nigeria. Child herders often lived in substandard conditions without access to school or proper nutrition. Their parents and herders generally agreed on an informal contract for the child’s labor that included a small monthly salary and a goat after six months or a cow at the end of a year. Local NGOs reported, however, compensation often was not paid. According to the Chadian Women Lawyers’ Association, girls sold or forced into child marriages were forced by their husbands into domestic servitude and agricultural labor.

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2018

[accessed 17 April 2019]

[page 270]

Child trafficking occurs primarily within Chad for the purposes of forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. In isolated incidents, boys may be forced to herd cattle for military or government officials. (2; 5; 9)

Domestically, boys known as mahadjirine may be sent to Koranic schools to receive an education, but they are forced to beg and then surrender the money they receive to their teachers. (1; 2; 5).

UN expert urges France, Chad to probe children case

Mathaba, Nov. 7, 2007 -- Source: Xinhua, Nov. 6, 2007

[accessed 28 January 2011]

Some members of the French NGO, named Arche de Zoe, were arrested in Chad on Oct. 25, following its alleged attempt to abduct and transfer 103 children to France for alleged adoption.  The NGO had claimed that its operation was aimed to help orphan refugees from Sudan's Darfur region. But international humanitarian organizations say many of the children were Chadian and they had parents.

CHAD-SUDAN: Legal Framework a Hindrance in 'Child-Trafficking' Case

Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), 1 Dakar, November 2007

[accessed 8 March 8, 2015]

Six members of the group - arrested on 25 October - have been charged with abducting minors for the purpose of changing their civil status (giving them new parents), a crime that carries a penalty of five to 20 years of forced labour.

Although the information has not yet been verified, there is speculation in this case that the children were willingly handed over, in which case abduction would be difficult to prove, Ndiaye said.  Trafficking legislation usually encompasses the illegal recruitment of children from "vulnerable" parents, who may agree to give up their children because they cannot care for them, he said.  A conviction in child trafficking also allows authorities to seize any assets used in the commission of the crime, Ndiaye said, which can deter future incidences.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 28 January 2011]

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - There are reports of child trafficking in Chad, mostly internally.  There were also instances of families selling their children into forced labor in farming and herding, either directly or through intermediaries, and reports that mahadjir children, who attend Islamic schools, were forced by their teachers to beg for food and money.  Although in 2003, UNICEF estimated that there were approximately 600 child soldiers serving in government security forces and armed groups in the country, the number of child soldiers was believed to have decreased during 2004, and there were no additional reports of recruitment of children for use as soldiers.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 28 January 2011]

CHILDREN - Several human rights organizations reported on the problem of the mahadjir children who attended certain Islamic schools and were forced by their teachers to beg for food and money. There was no reliable estimate of the number of mahadjir children. During the year the High Islamic Council held a public meeting with imams from around the country to discuss the treatment of children under Islam.

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – Although the law prohibits trafficking in persons, persons were trafficked within the country. Children were trafficked for forced labor, primarily as herders or domestic workers (see section 6.d.). A 2004 NGO survey of 500 child herders who had been returned to their parents indicated that there may have been between 1,500 and 2 thousand children between 6 and 17 years of age who had been trafficked as child herders. Local authorities, religious groups, and NGOs rescued 256 children in 2004-05.

The government arrested traffickers during the year. In May a citizen was arrested in Kousseri, Cameroon for forcing a child that he had kidnapped from Koumra, Chad to beg in the streets. Cameroon extradited the man to Chad, where he was in jail awaiting trial on kidnapping charges. In August a tip from a taxi driver led police to four children who were being trafficked to Cameroon from the country. The children were discovered in sacks in the back of a transport vehicle. The businessman was arrested and was in jail awaiting trial. The children were returned to their parents. There were no developments in the 2004 case of the appeal by three accused traffickers who were sentenced to hard labor for life by an appeals court, or in the case of a 10-year-old sold in 2004 by her parents to herders

SECTION 6 WORKER RIGHTS – [d] There were cases in some southern regions in which families sold their children. In some areas local authorities fined parents caught selling their children into forced labor. To avoid detection, some families worked with intermediaries to pass children from families to the farm owners.

During the year there were reports that in the southern part of the country families contracted out their children to Arab nomadic herders to help care for their animals, and the children often were abused and returned with little financial compensation for their work.

There were also credible reports that children were forced into slavery. According to a 2004 UN news service report, aid workers in the country estimated that families have sold as many as two thousand children--some as young as eight--into a system of slavery in which they worked as child cattle herders.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 4 June 1999

[accessed 28 January 2011]

[35] While taking note of the existing awareness and political will regarding the problems caused by the involvement of children in armed conflict, the Committee remains seriously concerned about the lack of resources available to support the rehabilitation and social reintegration of demobilized child soldiers. The Committee is particularly concerned about the situation of traumatized or permanently disabled former child soldiers and their lack of access to compensation or other support services. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the enforcement of its legislation banning the recruitment of children under 18 years. It also encourages the redoubling of efforts to allocate the necessary resources, if necessary with international assistance, to the rehabilitation and social reintegration of former child soldiers, and in particular to provide compensation and support services to traumatized or permanently disabled former child soldiers

Human Rights Overview by Human Rights Watch – Defending Human Rights Worldwide

[accessed 28 January 2011]

U.S. Library of Congress - Country Study

Library of Congress Call Number DT546.422 .C48 1990

[accessed 30 January 2019]


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Torture by Authorities in  [Chad]  [other countries]
Human Trafficking in  [Chad]  [other countries]