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Human Trafficking
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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025                        

Republic of Chad

Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Chad.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving.  Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving.  Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity.  There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Protection Project - Chad [DOC]

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The Johns Hopkins University

[accessed 2009]

FORMS OF TRAFFICKING - It is difficult to measure the extent of the problem of commercial sexual exploitation of children in Chad because of the lack of reliable data and the taboo surrounding the subject. It is known that prostitution, including child prostitution, and trafficking for sexual purposes and forced labor exist in Chad.  Children from Chad in Cameroon are paid as little as 3,000 CFA francs per month and required work as much as 18 hours a day. They are undernourished and sometimes sexually abused.  In early 2003, a Chadian girl who had been trafficked to Nigeria 10 years before at the age of 9 managed to escape. She had been forced into prostitution during her captivity. She reported that other Chadian girls were living under similar circumstances in Nigeria, and that the main clients for the trafficked victims were French legionnaires.


*** ARCHIVES ***

Human Rights Reports » 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 23 August 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - The law prohibits the commercial sexual exploitation of children, with punishments of two to five years’ imprisonment and fines from 100,000 to two million CFA francs ($170 to $3,400) for conviction. The law prohibits sexual relations with children younger than 14, even if married, but authorities rarely enforced the ban. The law criminalizes the use, procuring, or offering of a child for the production of pornography, but no cases of child pornography were reported during the year. The country was a destination for some child trafficking in the country, and refugee children from CAR were particularly vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation.

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2019

[accessed 22 August 2020]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

[page 328]

Child trafficking occurs primarily in Chad for the purposes of forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. Boko Haram may be responsible for some child trafficking in Chad, and refugee children from the Central African Republic are particularly vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation. (3,4)

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 4 June 1999

[accessed 28 January 2011]

[38] The Committee is concerned at the absence of data and of a comprehensive study on the issue of sexual exploitation of children. In the light of article 34 and other related articles of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party undertake studies with a view to designing and implementing appropriate policies and measures, including care and rehabilitation, to prevent and combat the sexual exploitation of children.

Five Years After Stockholm [PDF]

ECPAT: Fifth Report on implementation of the Agenda for Action

ECPAT International, November 2001

[accessed 13 September 2011]

[B] COUNTRY UPDATES – CHADChad has not yet developed a National Plan of Action specifically dealing with CSEC. However, civil society is discussing the issue more openly and potential solutions are being investigated. As a result, NGOs such as the Association Jeunesse Anti-Clivage and Association des Femmes Juristes du Chad are able to assist women and children whose rights are violated.

A Situational Analysis of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Chad [PDF]

Daniel Deuzoumbe Passalet, ECPAT International, March 2003

[accessed 5 January 2014]

[2.1.1] THE MAIN CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION IN CHAD - Prostitution increased considerably during the civil war, which lasted from 1979 to 1982. Unfavorable socio-economic factors affected the lives of most Chadians. The situation was worse depending on the size of a family, pushing fathers to neglect their duties. Unable to cope with their failure to meet basic needs, many fathers turned away from their parental responsibilities and left children to the streets. Boys became street children, known in Chad as “Colombians” (a reference to these boys’ drug consumption) and the girls to prostitution where they were exploited by many men in Chad. In addition to the war, we must mention the dictatorship of ex-President Hissein Habré (1982-1990), which led to the deaths of 40,000 victims, mostly men, which in turn led to many single parent families and a larger number of orphans.

ECPAT: 2002 Agenda for Action Report [DOC]

ECPAT International, 2002

[accessed 28 April 2011]


In Chad, UNICEF has developed a project for children in need of special protection.  One project component has been developed with the particular aim of providing protection and psychological rehabilitation to CSEC victims. The project is planned for an initial 3-year period of time.  An educational program has been developed, together with the Chadian Ministry of Social Affairs, specifically for officials that come in contact with children, including CSEC victims, to work for the child’s protection.

Chad Oil Pipeline Under Attack For Harming The Poor

Paul Brown, environment correspondent, The Guardian, 27 September 2002

[accessed 13 September 2011]

A coalition of environment, religious and development groups have produced two reports showing that so far the construction of the pipeline has damaged the interests of people along its entire length: water supplies have been damaged, pygmies have lost hunting lands, farmers have lost land and crops and an influx of immigrant workers has brought child prostitution and spread AIDS.



Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 7 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS - There were also reports of child prostitution, primarily in the southern oil-producing region.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 28 January 2011]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - A 2003 ECPAT study estimated that many Chadian children live in the streets and often fall victim to violence, including sexual exploitation.

CHILD LABOR LAWS AND ENFORCEMENT - The Penal Code prohibits child trafficking and sexual exploitation and procurement for the purposes of prostitution. The prostitution of children can result in a fine and imprisonment from 2 to 5 years.

CURRENT GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS TO ELIMINATE THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOR - The Government of Chad is working with UNICEF to implement a project for children who need special protection, including victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

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