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Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Poverty drives the unsuspecting poor into the hands of traffickers

Published reports & articles from 2000 to 2025                  

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products.

Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic slump in the early part of this decade, the country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks third in the world, after Liechtenstein and Qatar.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Description: Luxembourg

Luxembourg is a destination country for women trafficked primarily from Russia and Ukraine for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. An increasing number of women from Africa, primarily Nigeria, are engaged in prostitution in the country, and are particularly vulnerable to trafficking due to debts they incur in the process of migrating – legally or illegally -- to Luxembourg. The government and NGOs did not identify any cases of forced labor during the reporting period. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2009   Check out a later country report here and possibly a full TIP Report here


CAUTION:  The following links have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Luxembourg.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of Human Trafficking are of particular interest to you.  Would you like to write about Forced-Labor?  Debt Bondage? Prostitution? Forced Begging? Child Soldiers? Sale of Organs? etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include precursors of trafficking such as poverty and hunger. There is a lot to the subject of Trafficking.  Scan other countries as well.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee

Human Rights Committee, Luxembourg, U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/77/LUX (2003), 28 March 2003

[accessed 18 February 2011]

[3] The Committee has taken note of the Luxembourg delegation's position that the Covenant takes precedence over internal law, including the Constitution. The Committee welcomes the institutional changes the State party is making in prisons in order to prevent suicides. It has also taken note of the initiatives in the form of bills that the State party is taking in order to ensure better protection for the victims of trafficking in persons for the purposes of forced prostitution and for witnesses in judicial proceedings; to combat family violence; and to change the law relating to the press to embody in it the principle of proportionality. It has taken note of the State party's intention not only to implement the relevant legislative provisions, but also to make society, and victims, in particular, aware of the use of existing protection mechanisms.


*** ARCHIVES ***

2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Luxembourg

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 30 March 2021

[accessed 14 June 2021]


There were reports that foreign men and women were engaged in forced labor, chiefly in the construction and restaurant sectors. Some children were engaged in forced begging (see section 7.c.).


Romani children from neighboring countries were sometimes brought into the country during the day and trafficked for the purpose of forced begging (see section 7.b.).

Freedom House Country Report

2020 Edition

[accessed 8 July 2020]


The country’s residents largely enjoy equality of opportunity, and the government enforces legal protections against exploitative working conditions. Occasional cases of forced labor in the construction and food-service industries have been reported, especially among migrant workers.

One in 12 children forced into world's 'worst forms' of labor

Agence France-Presse AFP, London, February 21, 2005

[accessed 20 April 2012]

[accessed 13 February 2019]

"One way to put an end to the exploitation of children... is by taking action to make poverty history and ensuring a commitment to more and better international aid," said UNICEF UK executive director David Bull.  The report said that in the 43 countries where annual incomes are 500 dollars (383 euros) or less per person, between 30 and 60 percent of children are used in child labor, while in countries where average income rises to 500-1,000 dollars, the percentage of child laborers drops to between 10 and 30 percent.  "They form a vicious circle, poverty giving rise to labor and labor perpetuating poverty," the report said.

UNICEF UK lauded the pledge of developed countries, made more than 30 years ago, of allocating 0.7 percent of gross domestic product to development aid but regretted that only five countries today fulfill that promise -- Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Sweden.

Why Prostitution Should Not Be Decriminilised

Marge Ballin (Ministry Director), Inter Outreach Ministries, Africa Christian Action, 2003

[accessed 18 February 2011]

[accessed 13 February 2019]

SEXUAL SLAVERY, TRAFFICKING AND FORCED PROSTITUTION AN INTERNATIONAL PROBLEM - it will escalate in south africa if we decriminilize prostitution.  Sexual slavery is an International business and an International problem. The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) has uncovered the existence of a number of International networks and crime syndicates involved in buying and transporting women and children for sexual exploitation. In other words, sexual slavery is conducted in an International scale. According to the report, trafficking in thousands of women and children flows from Latin America to Puerto Rico, to Southern Europe and Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Another flows from Southeast Asia to the Middle East and Central and Northern Europe. There is a regional European market, supplied in part by Latin America and exporting French women to Luxembourg and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 28 January 2005

[accessed 18 February 2011]

[accessed 4 February 2018]

[57] While welcoming the many legislative and other measures taken by the State party to combat and raise awareness of the problem of sexual exploitation, trafficking in persons and child pornography, the Committee is concerned that the conditions of work for women and girls arriving in Luxembourg to work in the entertainment sector are such that they may be exposed to the risk of prostitution and trafficking in human beings.

Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Luxembourg

17 January 2000

[accessed 18 February 2011]

394. The Committee welcomes the law of May 1999 that strengthened measures against trafficking in humans and the sexual exploitation of children and, in particular, extended Luxembourg law to cover all sexual crimes or misdemeanours committed abroad by citizens of Luxembourg.

411. The Committee urges the Government to develop a policy and legislation to prevent and eliminate domestic violence, and sexual violence, including rape, against women and girls, and to prosecute violators. The Committee calls on the State party to collect statistics on th e incidence of domestic violence, and comprehensive information on the impact of measures against domestic violence.  The Committee also recommends that the Government gather further information on the impact of the law on trafficking in humans and the sexu al exploitation of children.


Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 9 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – The law prohibits trafficking in persons; however, the country was a destination for women trafficked from Eastern Europe for the purpose of sexual exploitation. There were two confirmed reports of trafficking reported during the year. The law provides penalties from six months' to three years' imprisonment and monetary fines for trafficking. If there are aggravating circumstances, prison sentences can range from 1 to 10 years' imprisonment. The government effectively enforced the anti-trafficking statutes. The Ministry of Justice with the involvement of the ministries of foreign affairs and equal opportunity as well as NGOs was responsible for the government's anti-trafficking efforts. The prosecution of the one 2004 trafficking case was ongoing at year's end.

There were no government services specifically for victims of trafficking; however, two NGOs, which were fully financed by the government, provided shelter and counseling assistance to women in distress.

There were no government prevention programs specifically targeting trafficking at year's end.

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