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Human Trafficking

Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children

In the first decade of the 21st Century                                                   

Kingdom of Nepal

Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world with almost one-third of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting for about one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain..  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Nepal

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Nepal.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspect(s) of street life are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got there, how they survive, and how some manage to leave the street.  Perhaps your paper could focus on how some street children abuse the public and how they are abused by the public … and how they abuse each other.  Would you like to write about market children? homeless children?  Sexual and labor exploitation? begging? violence? addiction? hunger? neglect? etc.  There is a lot to the subject of Street Children.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Glue, a Cheap Substitute for Intoxication

Mani Man Singh Rajbhandari, OhmyNews, Kathmandu, 30 January 2008

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Those who might think these street kids are ignorant are wrong. They are actually inventors - innovators of a cheap substitute for intoxication, which is easily available in the market, sold in both drug stores and hardware stores. It is none other than a sticky adhesive gluten substance commonly known as dendrite solution.

If you happen to be in a car in Kathmandu waiting for a red light, don’t be amazed to witness the street children congregating around your car begging for money with a plastic bag in hand. These bags, usually filled with gluten, might look like a harmless, playful thing to us - but it is cheap and extremely harmful substitute for getting high and intoxicated.

Children remain easy prey for exploitation, violence

The Rising Nepal, Kathmandu, Aug. 11, 2008

[accessed 24 June 2011]

The Abuse of Street Children in Kathmandu

CPCS - VOC, Nepal 2008 -- ISBN: 978-9937-2-0575-7

[accessed 25 December 2016]

Street children are the most vulnerable lot. Sexual abuse is hidden but a widely prevalent suffering among them. No child is safe and away from this cauldron of suffering.  Approximately 99 per cent of them are physically and psychologically abused. Child sexual abuse may include fondling a child’s genitals, masturbation, oral-genital contact, digital penetration, and vaginal and anal intercourse.  The other ways a child can be abused with are direct physical contact, such as sex by exposures, voyeurism and child pornography, use of obscene language, also referred to as non-contact abuse, shows a research conducted jointly by CPSC NGO Nepal, CPCS INT Belgium and VOC Nepal.

Males are the predominant perpetrators of sexual abuse against street children. On average, there are three male abusers for every two female abusers. On an average, 40 per cent of sexually abusive episodes are perpetrated by street-living children and adults as well as 40 per cent by non-street living adults.  Non street-living adults include relatives, shop, hotel or restaurant owners and workers or any Nepali adult not living on the street. The street is clearly the chief location for all types of sexual abuses, accounting for one in three incidents occurring. – sccp

Nepal police 'torture kids for fun:' rights group

Agence France-Presse AFP, KATHMANDU, Nov 18, 2008

[accessed 24 June 2011]

[accessed 25 December 2016]

The New York-based Human Rights Watch said it had received more than 200 reports this year of the torture in police custody of street children or minors suspected of crimes.  "Sometimes, the torture is inflicted to extract confessions from the children," said Human Rights Watch researcher Bede Sheppard.  "At other times it appears to be carried out purely for the entertainment of the official," Sheppard said.  The youngest alleged victim of police torture was a 13-year-old, and methods of torture reported on the minors included kicking, punching, forcing metal nails under toenails and beatings with plastic pipes, the rights group said.


*** ARCHIVES ***

ECPAT Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial exploitation of children - NEPAL [PDF]

ECPAT International, 2006

[accessed 24 June 2011]

[accessed 25 December 2016]

A study on child sex tourism (CST) in Nepal (Kathmandu and Pokhara) in 2003, showed that there were many incidences of foreign tourists/paedophiles exploiting children (particularly street children and children from slum areas), who were lured by the promise of money and gifts from tourists. Abuse took place in hotel rooms, restaurants, secluded places and while trekking, etc. The study did not find any organised form of sex tourism existing in Nepal at that time. The exact number of abuses was difficult to measure as most of the contacts were made at individual level and therefore difficult to trace. There were also numerous cases reported in the local newspapers of foreign tourists keeping young boys and girls in their rented homes for long periods of time where they were exploited sexually in exchange for shelter, food, clothing and money.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 23 February 2011]

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - There is anecdotal evidence that unaccompanied children are fleeing areas of civil unrest and migrating to urban areas because of economic hardship and to avoid recruitment by Maoist insurgents.  There is concern among government officials and NGOs that these children are much more vulnerable to labor or sexual exploitation, or living on the streets.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 10 February 2020]

CHILDREN - Internal displacement due to the conflict, including of children, continued to be a problem, with estimates of the number displaced ranging widely. The International Labor Organization estimated that 10 to 15 thousand children were displaced during the year. As IDPs, children faced inadequate access to food, shelter, and health care, and had limited access to education.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 3 June 2005

[accessed 23 February 2011]

[61] The Committee also notes with concern that little has been done to address the particular health vulnerabilities and needs of children at risk, including street children, child laborers, child sex workers and Dalit children.

[85] In view of the increasing number of children living and working on the street and the State party’s recognition that they are among the major victims of abuse, neglect and exploitation, the Committee regrets the paucity of information about specific programs and measures to address their situation.

[95] The Committee notes with grave concern that certain groups of children are at a particularly higher risk of being sold and trafficked, including girls, internally displaced children, street children, orphans, children from rural areas, refugee children and children belonging to more vulnerable castes.

Street children with mental illness left in the lurch

Arjun Poudel, Republica Social affairs, November 13, 2010

[accessed 13 November 2010]!topic/nepalmentalhealth/l_xDQ1qsMJc

[accessed 25 December 2016]

Street children with overt mental disorders often go totally unattended in the country as orphanages in the country are reluctant to admit them.

Worse still, orphanages do not admit children with mental health problems. “They only admit healthy and small children,” Sub-inspector Shankar Shrestha, who is also a staffer at the center, said, adding, “They do not admit children above the age of twelve.” He said that the police have no choice but to leave such children back on the streets if their relatives do not come looking for them.

These Grim Images & Sounds

Arpan Shrestha, Republica, Kathmandu, March 24, 2009

[accessed 24 June 2011]

[accessed 25 December 2016]

As the night deepens, the wind temperature drops significantly and the children abandon their ‘police-demonstrator’ game. They huddle together, every so often kicking each other in the butt and smiling. “We have to sleep outside tonight,” says one observing the thick vapor in their breath.   “Look, the vapor I exhale is the longest,” says another in a reaffirming stance as the children crisscross their vapor and stroll towards the temple opposite Basantapur Durbar. All four climb the stairs to the temple.   On reaching the top, one begins to sing as others collect scattered paper boards to sleep on. The hurt one then gets a little plastic out of his worn pants and begins to inhale from it. Two others stretch out and follow suit. One of them blurts out (to the singing boy), “Shut up, will you?”   Soon, the four snuggle up to each other and sleep, or perhaps surrender to the hallucinations from the glue they’ve been sniffing. Two stray dogs appear, sniff around and settle next to the children and together they all call it a day.

95 pc street children sniff glue, Kathmandu, Jan 2, 2009

[accessed 24 June 2011]

With the onset of winter, it is usual for people to buy warm clothes and heaters to warm up their rooms and snuggle up in the quilt till late morning.   However, looking at skimpily dressed street children, you may wonder how they survive the freezing cold of Kathmandu. But they have their own way of keeping warm: they sniff dendrite.

Bibek Moktan, 12, who hails from Hetauda, warms up his winter morning by blowing into and inhaling from a plastic bag containing dendrite.   "I sniff one tube (50 grams) of dendrite a day," said Moktan. "When I first tried sniffing, I felt a current flowing inside me, but slowly I got used to it."   Kale Pariyar, 15, from Kalimati, was also sniffing from a dirty plastic with glue inside it. "I sniff, because I want to enjoy as others do,"said Pariyar   Bibek and Kale are not the only ones who sniff glue to keep warm and to be happy. There are hundreds of children on the streets of the capital addicted to glue despite various health hazards associated with it.

According to a research conducted by Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre (CWIN), glue sniffing affects various organs including the brain, nervous system, eyes, blood, lungs and heart and even causes death.

Dream big, Mrs Ban tells street children

Nepal News, KATHMANDU, November 2, 2008

[accessed 11 Aug  2013]

She asked officials at the drop-in centre about the children's education and observed the facilities available there. While some come for classes during the day and spend the rest of their time in the streets, others, who were sexually abused, live at the centre.

Paritra Tamrakar, programme officer at the centre, informed the visiting dignitary that sexual exploitation of street children was rampant in the capital. She said that over 80 percent of street boys have been sexually abused, and there was difficulty in taking action against the guilty due to lack of implementation of the law.

Nepalese football academy rescues street children

Mail & Guardian Online, May 31 2008

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Three years ago, Mahendra BK was a 12-year-old boy living on the street in Pokhara, a middle-sized Nepalese town with a population of about 200Â 000. His mother died when he was still an infant and his alcoholic father died of tuberculosis when Mahendra was only eight.  Mahendra lived in extreme poverty with his sister and grandmother for about a year. At the age of nine, he left them and ended up in Kathmandu, the capital, where he was living a high-risk life on the street, collecting garbage and selling it for petty cash to recycling factories.

"When I was living on the street, I was sleeping under empty rice sacks in many different places. The police used to come around and chase me away.

Mushrooming orphanages

Wilko Verbakel And Susan Van Klaveren, Nepali Times, Issue #387 (15 Feb 2008 - 21 Feb 2008) -- Wilko Verbakel and Susan van Klaveren are board members of a Dutch NGO, the International Council for Friends Of Nepal ICFON

[accessed 11 Aug  2013]

Setting up an orphanage is a popular activity in Nepal among Western NGOs. There are now over a thousand orphanages in the country, and over 400 in the Kathmandu Valley. If each of them houses 30-40 children then in the valley alone around 15,000 children must live in such institutions.

Only a small portion of these children are really orphans. A USAID study among 350 'orphanages' in Nepal showed that only 20 percent of the 8,821 children surveyed had no parents while over 50 percent still had both parents. Many apparent orphans live on the street because their parents cannot afford to feed them properly, but NGOs should question if these homes really contribute to reducing poverty.

NEPAL: Street children sniff glue to beat hunger pangs

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks IRIN, KATHMANDU, 22 October 2007

[accessed 10 March 10, 2015

The decade-long armed conflict between the Nepali government and Maoist rebels that ended last year also contributed to the rise in numbers, say activists. But despite the signing of the peace treaty in November 2006, many children continue to live on the streets, homeless, food-insecure and suffering from serious health problems, according to CWIN. 

CWIN found that almost all street children were addicted to glue sniffing because of hunger and the influence of friends. About 95 percent of street children were using glue, and it would not take much to introduce the habit to the remaining 5 percent, it said.  It found that some children used as many as 15 tubes a day (one tube of dendrite can be used four to five times) and many used it as a substitute for regular meals.  The cheapest of all dendrites is Nepal-made, besides the imports from India and China. It is available in all hardware shops and costs less than 40 US cents per 25mg tube.

A Different View Concerning CA Polls

Eliza Rana, The Rising Nepal, Kathmandu, October 5, 2007

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 24 June 2011]

There are about 12 million under-18 years of age who are regarded as children, having no right to cast their ballots in the upcoming CA polls. Due to growing awareness, many children are aware about the condition of political upheaval, human rights, social justice and democratic process of the country. Many of them have participated in the people’s movement in one or the other. Street children were the ones who actively participated in many of the political protest programmes. Many of them were injured but none of the organization, government or political parties came forward to acknowledge their contribution, let alone taking care of them.

Feeling Of Guilt

The Rising Nepal, August 24, 2007

[accessed 24 June 2011]

On the matter, it is rather unfortunate that the number of street children in the cities is increasing especially in the Kathmandu metro. It is plain and clear to any one who takes the round of the metro whether as a pedestrian, public vehicle commuter or in your own private means of transportation. There, out in the street, are groups of the street children on their prowl. They may be asking for donations or scavenging as the metro is a haven for garbage piles at strategic points.

Heckling the people is their common behaviour. Can't fight back but listen to them. One has the tendency to get humiliated but there's no way out but go through the experience. The street children are not to be blamed as they are living a live deprivation and sees in you a person who has enough of everything. One just can't face many of such children with supposedly empty milk pouches. Probably they are sniffing glue. Well, it's a percentage of a generation that is going to waste. That brings in us a feeling of guilt.

Nepal Street Life: Adventure, Abuse & Addiction: Karen Choy

Karen Choy,, 20 August 2007

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Happy days. Countless hours spent sniffing dendrite, smoking cigarettes, drinking "chyang", watching movies, playing cards, marbles, and video games. This is the life of a street child in Kathmandu. No responsibilities and fun with friends.

According to one child, "I don't want to go home because I earn money here. I earn 100 to 150 rupees per day by rag picking. I eat meat and rice and with the rest of the money, I buy dendrite and drink alcohol. I'm the leader of my group."

Comments such as this reinforce the public perception of unruly, uncontrollable, and unreformable children. Many children do not regret their decision to live on the street. One child explains, "I like to stay on the street. Everyone loves me here."

Street kids, domestic hands seek voting rights

The Rising Nepal, Kathmandu, Aug. 17, 2007

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Media persons and those working for the child rights said that many street children were more aware about politics than other children.  They said that more than 50 per cent street children participated in the people's movement in one way or the other. In many protest programmes these children were the ones who were at the front, they said. More than 50 per cent of the street children were also injured but nobody has cared for them or has acknowledged their contribution.

Glue is sticking with Kathmandu kids

Karen Choy,, July 27, 2007

[accessed 24 June 2011]

WHAT IS BEING DONE? - Child welfare organization SAATHI is currently conducting exploratory research on the needs of dendrite addicted street children. SAATHI is gathering data from Kathmandu street children in order to develop effective long term interventions for addicted children. CWIN has completed research on glue sniffing in the past and currently engages in anti-drug campaigns targeting addicted street children. "Most crucial is a rehabilitation center. Many of the street children are aware of the harmful effects. There nees to be long term support and strong government policies to address this issue," said Suvekycha Rana, Child Program Coordinator of SAATHI. Currently, there are no long term drug rehabilitation facilities for children in Kathmandu. Such services are only available to youth and adults. Furthermore, both CWIN and SAATHI emphasize the need for a comprehensive, long term approach to addiction among street children. Support services, long term rehabilitation centers for children, public awareness, and strong government policies combating glue sniffing are key elements in a comprehensive approach. Simply criminalizing inhalant abuse and penalizing dendrite distributors will only drive glue sniffing underground. In this situation, the more vulnerable street children would be subject to further exploitation.

Nepal: Street children given hope

BBC News, 28 May 2007

[accessed 24 June 2011]

KHEMRAJ PURI - Most of the time we used to collect plastic garbage in order to sell it. But the money we would get for a whole day's work was not enough for one breakfast. So we used to steal fruit and vegetables from the shops.  We were not allowed to sleep in front of the people's houses. So we used to sleep, when there were no policemen, in the corner of the road cuddling with the dogs to keep warm.

GOPAL GURUNG - I slept on the side of the road, in the park and in front of the shopping centres. Early in the morning I would get a hard kick in my back to chase me away.  I saw kids going to school. I was very jealous as I also wanted to study. I was seven years old and I had not known what education was. I wanted to study and become a good human being.

Former street child helps fight destitution

Jennie Murray, Gulf News, December 16, 2006

[accessed 24 June 2011]

When Saran Silwal was a young child begging for food and rummaging through garbage on the streets of Kathmandu, he could never have imagined he would end up working for a five-star hotel in Dubai.  He had fallen out with his family and ended up homeless by the time he was just eight years old.  "I was just wandering the streets and I found other children sleeping in the street and joined them.

"The worst part was the hunger. I would see somebody eating something mouth-watering in a restaurant. I just wanted to kill my hunger," he said.  Many street youngsters in the capital of Nepal, to cope with the hunger and the cold nights of sleeping in rags, fall into the abyss of glue-sniffing.

Street kids to join Dashain celebrations

Lekhnath Pant, Kathmandu, Sept 29, 2006

[accessed 25 December 2016]

Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) has stopped dealing with the problems faced by street children, according to Raju Shrestha, the program manager of Domestic Child Worker at KMC. In the past, the unit was looking after the problem under an International Labor Organization project.  The project is over now.

Street Kids Getting High With Adhesives

Mudita Bajracharya, The Himalayan Times, Kathmandu, August 2, 2006

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 24 June 2011]

"Almost 95 per cent of the children below 14 years and living on the streets are addicted to adhesives. They have plastic bags with glues in them all the time," he added.
"We are a group of six and beg in the streets. We use as many as five tubes a day," Shanti said.

Where Do Child Laborers Go?

Rupesh Silwal, OhmyNews, 12 June 2006

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Various NGOs in Nepal are holding a rally to raise awareness in every citizen of the problem of child labor. Many street children will join the rally for a chance to get a full meal. More than 500 children are expected to participate. But there are more than 5,000 street children in Nepal.

Street Children in Nepal Struggling with AIDS

Rupa Kharel, OhmyNews, 16 May 2006

[accessed 24 June 2011]

It is well documented that street-based children share an environment and practices that make them vulnerable to HIV infection. Furthermore, two independent tests conducted by an NGO in Kathmandu in 2002 identified the existence of HIV infection among this sub-population. In these tests, 25 out of 80 (31 percent) street children were HIV positive, and 16 out of 32 (50 percent) "high-risk" street children were HIV positive.

Street Kids Lukewarm to Idea of Taking to Streets

Mudita Bajracharya, The Himalayan Times, Lalitpur, April 16, 2006

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Although some children are being seen during protest programmes in the capital, the involvement of street children in the ongoing demonstrations and clashes is minimal.

The street children make their livelihood from rag picking, so they are seen in the localities mostly after the protest scenes are over to collect scarps, said Suchita Shah, programme manager of Sath Sath. Amrit Pariyar and his friends have been moving to the places after the riots are over to collect wires from the remains of burnt tyres and aluminum of used tear gas shells.

The Pathetic Reality of Street Children in Nepal

Bhuwan Thapaliya, OhmyNews, 07 October 2005

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Over the past few decades, the standard of living of many urban Nepalese has risen beyond measure, even in the midst of political turmoil. But ironically, at the same time many poor children are struggling for survival out in the streets, sleeping on makeshift cardboard mattresses in main cities like Kathmandu, Pokhara, Dharan, Narayanghat, Butwal, and Biratnagar.

SKiD Project - The Nepal Street Kids Database

SKiD 2005-2006

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Ø Online Reports about Street Kids in Nepal

Ø Selected Links about Street Kids in Nepal

Ø NGO working with Street Kids in Nepal

Status of Street Children in Nepal

[accessed 24 June 2011]

According to ILO's rapid assessment on rag-picking children, there are about 4,000 children working in this sector, which is considered one of the worst forms of child labor. Among the rag pickers, 88% are boys and 12% girls.  In average, rag pickers work 6 hours a day and earn NRs. 87 per day.  They concentrate in the areas like junkyards, temples, market centers, cinema halls, airports, bus terminals, hardware shops, tourist centers, etc. while they do their work.  While on the street they face problems of hunger, shelter, clothes, etc.  Similarly, face problems from police, "dada" (bullies), gang etc.  With all these problems and tensions, they lead their complex life.

Street Children, Big Problem in Nepal

Xinhua News Agency, 26 February 2002

[accessed 24 June 2011]

Most of the children living in the streets right now left their homes at the age of eight because of various problems that happened in their families.  These problems were mainly caused by stepmothers, family conflicts, poverty, lack of awareness, and orphanages.  Some children left in search of better opportunities in the big cities.  Most of those children living in the streets depend on begging from others, working as porters and construction workers in the construction sites inside of the cities and their neighboring villages.

Information about Street Children - Nepal [PDF]

Based on a paper prepared by Concern for Children and Environment CONCERN

[accessed 25 June 2011]

[page 9] CONSTRAINTS AND CHALLENGES - Dangerous and unhealthy living environments and the resulting untreated illnesses and frequent injuries that entail. Lack of adequate emotional support, food, shelter and safe places to sleep and store belongings, leading to inability of street children to save money. Dependency of newcomers to the street on more ‘experienced’ street children. Involvement of street children in criminal activities.

Child Labour Is Cruel Alright, But Who Is To Take Care Of The Freed Children?

Tashi Dolma Thinley, Kathmandu, Dec 21, 2001

[accessed 25 June 2011]

‘I left home thinking that the carpet factory would hire me, but they told me the authorities did not want people of my age to work.  It might be a good thing done by the government, but where does it leave people like me?’ asks a desperate Shivam.  Indeed, where did that leave him?  On the Kathmandu streets and begging...

Bank accounts for Nepal's street kids

Manisha Aryal, BBC News,  in Kathmandu, 27 June, 2001

[accessed 25 June 2011]

About 600 children live and work in the streets of Kathmandu. They earn their living picking plastic, selling souvenirs and working as money-collectors in public buses and three-wheelers.  Until now they have had no place to keep their savings.

A Life Without Basic Service - Street Children Say

Asia Child Rights ACR Weekly Newsletter Vol. 3, No. 7, 18 February 2004

[accessed 25 June 2011]

In not recognizing the opportunities as well as the problems of street life, organizations have been unsuccessful in providing viable alternatives. The way we perceive street children dictates our response to them.  The aim of this study has been to gain an understanding of street children's perspectives of their own situation to encourage more appropriate and effective interventions.

Street children are a part of modern Nepalese society

Maria Seppälä, Universitas Helsingiensis, February 2001

[accessed 25 June 2011]

CWIN, originally part of a students' democracy movement, aims at raising people's awareness of childhood as something special and, most particularly, of the appalling conditions of street children in Nepal. It also combats the use of child labor. CWIN does not want to be an aid agency, but rather an active operator among the children.

Alcohol and Drug Use among Street Children in Nepal

Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre CWIN, 2002-11-28

[accessed 25 June 2011]

Sumnima Tuladhar of CWIN presented the results of a study on alcohol and drug use among street children in six urban centers in Nepal at a FORUT conference recently. The children are very much affected by glue sniffing.

The current prevalence rate of drugs is 20.6% and the overall prevalence of alcohol use among children aged 10-17 is 17.4% for current use, with 21.8% for boys and 11.2% for girls. Exposure of drugs use largely depends on the company of children. The socio-psychological circumstance is much more favorable for drug use for children. More and more street children are exposed to intravenous drug use. Among them about 10% are believed to be exposed to HIV infection.

Glue Sniffing among Street Children in the Kathmandu Valley [PDF]

Abinash Rai, Keshab Prashad Ghimire, Pooja Shrestha, & Sumnima Tuladhar, Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre CWIN, 2002

[accessed 25 June 2011]

More than 80% street children are addicted to glue sniffing, which is the current trend among street children. The issue of drug use and HIV among street children is utterly neglected by the organizations working on the issues of HIV and drug abuse.

NGO Initiatives Addressing Glue-Sniffing Among Street Children In Nepal

Asia Child Rights ACR Weekly Newsletter Vol.01, No.05, 11 DEC 2002

[accessed 25 June 2011]

Glue sniffing which is a largely urban phenomenon among street children in Katmandu has not received much attention. There is also a significant gap in identification of high-risk children and prevention programs within Katmandu.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Street Children - Nepal",, [accessed <date>]