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In the early years of the 21st Century


Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Nepal

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Nepal in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

In Nepal, extreme weather events have become more frequent in recent years. Nepal is particularly vulnerable to climate change, water-induced disasters, and hydro-meteorological extreme events such as storms, floods, landslides, and soil erosion. These events can have significant impacts on communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure. – adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Nepal

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 28 December 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 6 January 2021]

Nepal is among the least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for less than a third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,700 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 69%

industry: 12%

services: 19% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25.2% (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 186 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 25.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.8 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 91.5% of population

Physicians density: 0.91 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 75.7% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 90.7% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Nepal

[accessed 22 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Paani”: How The Villagers Of India And Nepal Are Saving Their Water

~ The Suaahara Ii Project: Improving Health In Nepal

~ 3 Organizations Fighting Hunger In Nepal

~ Data Literacy Is Changing Nepal’s Future

~ Access To Inclusive Education In Nepal

~ The Movement Against Casteism In Nepal

~ Poverty’s Contribution To Child Marriage In Nepal

~ Covid-19’s Impact On Nepal’s Rural Communities

Nepal’s epidemic of hunger - Malnutrition among Nepali children pre-dates Covid-19, but the pandemic has made it worse

Anita Bhetwal in Mahottari, Nepali Times, 14 June 2021

[accessed 15 June 2021]

There are 34 households in Mohattarai’s Anaita neighbourhood, most of them have at least four children each. In the last three years, three children in the community have died due to complications from the lack of food.

Raju Devi Sada first lost her three-year-old daughter, already weakened by malnutrition, who died a week after she caught pneumonia and diarrhoea.

Hunger has always stalked the land here in the backwaters of the eastern plains of Nepal. State neglect, inequality and injustice have unleashed a vicious cycle where families are too poor to eat enough, which makes them sick, and having to spend on medical treatment drives them deeper into poverty and that means they can afford less food.

Nepal: Following hydro deal, what’s next?

IFC Insights, International Finance Corporation IFC, World Bank Group, 31 May 2021

[Long URL]

[accessed 31  May 2021]

A majority-owned Korean subsidiary company earlier this month signed a financing agreement with nine co-lenders, including IFC, to build a 216-megawatt hydropower plant that will provide power to up to 9 million people by 2024. The project, developed by Nepal Water and Energy Development Company, represents one of Nepal’s largest-ever foreign direct investments.

Barshaman Pun, Nepal’s Minister of Energy, called the UT-1 hydro project a “game-changer” for his country. “Not only will it power hundreds of thousands of homes and businesses, but it will also serve as an of example of how private companies can help Nepal expand its hydropower sector and attract much needed foreign direct investment.”

Safety First

Sabita Nakarmi, myRepublica, 27 May 2021

[accessed 28  May 2021]

The global threat has most severely and disproportionately disrupted the social, economic and health infrastructure system, particularly of structurally-constrained Least Developed Countries (LDCs) like Nepal that have been inherently suffering long from the crises including poverty, hunger, illiteracy, unemployment and trade deficit. The pandemic has exposed and aggravated the vulnerabilities and inequalities vehemently in developing countries by deepening poverty and exclusion, crumbling the economies, increasing unemployment and pushing the most vulnerable ones even further behind.

The story of the poorest village of the poorest district in Nepal

Prakash Singh,  Onlinekhabar, 15 March 2021

[accessed 15 March 2021]

EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER -- Muktikot, an old Dalit settlement on the hill, has very little arable land. Moreover, this village is affected by drought almost every year. Even in the year when no drought occurs, the harvested crops only last for some months only, says Aaujani BK.

Muktikot village is always in a food crisis. The villagers here struggle to make the ends meet. Neither is there any employment nor any production.

“It’s been hard to survive from hunger this year,” says Bal Bahadur BK, “Due to the drought, the seedlings have not been able to germinate.”

According to Bal Bahadur, there are only four government employees in the entire village: one is the Nepal Police constable, one is a Nepal Army staffer and the other two are non-gazetted technical staff. Except for these four families having a regular source of income, most of the other villagers are starving.

Pandemic of poverty -- Nepal’s children bear the brunt of the falling household income during the Covid-19 crisis

Editorial, Nepali Times, 28 December 2020

accessed 28 December 2020]

Results from a recent nationwide survey show that more than half of Nepali households are at risk of falling back into poverty because of loss of jobs and income during 2020 due to the pandemic. And it is the children who are affected the most.

The most striking finding was that 42% of households in Nepal have no earnings at all, and a further 19% have a combined monthly family income of less than Rs10,000. This means the official figure for Nepal’s population living below the poverty line will need to be drastically revised.

The coping mechanism for most of those slipping into poverty was to borrow, dig into savings, cut household expenditure, migrate, or rely on remittances. Disaggregated data showed that 61% of Dalit families were forced to borrow to survive, while only 48% of non-Dalit families had to borrow money to run the household, revealing that caste differences can also mean a class gap.

Nepal’s children bore the brunt of falling household incomes by being deprived of adequate food, health care and education.

Revolving funds under Poverty Alleviation Fund to be transformed into cooperatives

Prithvi Man Shrestha, Kathmandu Post, 2 January 2021

[Long URL]

[accessed 3 January 2021]

The government is preparing to transform revolving funds created by the Poverty Alleviation Fund into cooperatives. As provisioned in the budget for the current fiscal year 2020-21, the government is preparing to transform the funds, which were created to finance income-generating activities for the impoverished, into 600 cooperatives across the country.

“The Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF)’s activities were run in 551 municipalities and rural municipalities. Preparation is underway to establish 600 cooperatives with at least one cooperative in one local government and two in some local governments,” said Nirmal Kumar Bhattarai, vice-president of PAF.

 “Currently, each revolving fund has funds of a few lakhs. Cooperatives will be formed by merging them. After the merger, each cooperative will have enough resources that they can invest in activities that boost rural economy,” said Bhattarai.

As per the proposed regulation, as many as 900,000 households, which are associated with 32,276 community organisations running the revolving funds, will be shareholders of the would-be cooperatives.

Action Against Hunger - Nepal

[accessed 21 March 2021]

After a decade of unstable governments and armed conflicts, law and order are still tenuous at best in Nepal, where a culture of impunity persists. One-third of the Nepalese population lives below the poverty line. Agriculture, the backbone of the Nepalese economy, is the main source of livelihood for 80% of the population.

Nepal is also among the countries most vulnerable to natural disasters: due to its geographical location in the Himalayas, within a high-risk earthquake zone, more than 80% of the country's population is frequently threatened by floods, landslides, storms or earthquakes. In addition, field surveys have revealed alarming malnutrition rates.

The World Bank in Nepal

[accessed 21 April 2021]

Nepal is undergoing a historic transition toward a federal and secular republic. This represents a window of opportunity for the country to further reduce poverty, increase the income of the bottom 40 percent, and pursue its ambitious agenda of inclusive growth and accountable service delivery.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 28 December 2020]

Despite social and economic reforms begun in the 1950s, Nepal's per capita income was only $1,100 (PPP) in 1998, and general living standards are low. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which engages about 80% of the labor force but is inefficiently organized and limited by a shortage of arable land in relation to population.

The principal challenge for the Nepalese is to provide for a rising and unequally distributed population and to achieve material progress without irrevocably depleting the environmental resource base.

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