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Human Trafficking

Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children

In the first decade of the 21st Century                                       


Kazakhstan, the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources.

The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing its manufacturing potential. The policy changed the corporate tax code to

Description: Description: Kazakhstan

favor domestic industry as a means to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Kazakhstan.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspect(s) of street life are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got there, how they survive, and how some manage to leave the street.  Perhaps your paper could focus on how some street children abuse the public and how they are abused by the public … and how they abuse each other.  Would you like to write about market children? homeless children?  Sexual and labor exploitation? begging? violence? addiction? hunger? neglect? etc.  There is a lot to the subject of Street Children.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Summary Of Fact-Finding Mission To Kazakhstan

Maitland J. "Aaron" Peak – Peak Options Consulting, for Soros Foundation – Open Society Institute, International Harm Reduction Development Program -- The fact finding mission ran from July 26-30 and August 19-29, 2000

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 6 June 2011]

HOW ILLICIT DRUG USE AFFECTS THE LIVES OF PEOPLE IN KAZAKHSTAN - Young drug users and children of drug users have the most difficulty coping. Children of arrested parents either go to a relative’s home or to the children’s distribution center. (Ref. 10) The drug treatment clinic Teen Challenge Kazakhstan tries to help children by creating a drug-free environment with absolutely no police involvement. The facility is maximum security, not to keep the "students" in, but to keep out drug dealers and the police who try to arrest students. The facility is uniquely known in the country for its confidentiality and lack of corruption.


*** ARCHIVES ***

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 16 February 2011]

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Children continue to be found begging, loading freight, delivering goods in markets, washing cars, and working at gas stations.  Reports also indicate a rise in the number of children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, pornography and drug trafficking in urban areas.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 9 February 2020]

CHILDREN - Education is mandatory through age 16, or the ninth grade; elementary schooling generally begins at age 6. Primary and secondary education was both free and universal. The law provides for equal access to education by both boys and girls. According to Ministry of Education figures, enrollment for the year was estimated at over 98 percent of school-aged children.

The law provides for access to public education for refugee and illegal migrant children. In some cases, these children were denied access to schools or their parents did not attempt to enroll them out of fear of discovery and deportation.

The government has temporary detention shelters for homeless minors until they can be returned to their parents or more permanently placed.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 6 June 2003

[accessed 16 February 2011]

[74] The Committee is extremely concerned at: (a) The increasing number of street children and inappropriate policies and programmes implemented by the juvenile affairs services to address this situation;  (b) The inappropriateness of the preventive measures and at the keeping of a special database on information on these children being considered as social assistance with a view to preventing abandonment and criminality;  (c) The vulnerability of street children to, inter alia, sexual abuse, violence, including from the police, exploitation, exclusion from education, substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS and malnutrition.

Kazakhstan - Reports to Treaty Bodies - Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

Committee on the Rights of the Child

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 25 September 2011]

Other areas of concern included the following: the general lack of comprehensive information on the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code; the lack of effective measures to reduce and eliminate child labor; the growing involvement of children in the sex industry and the apparent indifference of society towards the issue of child prostitution; the lack of specialized centers to provide services, including psychotherapeutic assistance, as well as recovery and reintegration programs for child victims of sexual violence; the increasing number of street children and the inappropriate policies and programs to address this situation.

Child Kazakhstan Waiting

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 25 September 2011]

KAZAKHSTAN - The minimum age for employment is 14 years, but only for part-time work (5 hours a day) that is not physically onerous. A child between the ages of 14 and 16 may work only with the permission of his or her parents. Education is compulsory to age 16, and the law stipulates harsh punishment for employers who exploit children under this age.

Monitoring Initiative School Drop-Out Analysis [DOC]

Education Policy Center, Vilnius University, Faculty of Philosophy

[accessed 6 June 2011]

Drop-out is a problem in Kazakhstan that is barely noticed.  According to official statistics only 0.2% of the schoolchildren drop out.  Thus it is not considered on the national level and it is not a topic for broad discussion.  The real problem, since independence, are the new groups of “at risk” children like street children, children from disadvantaged families and “oralmans” (Kazakh families repatriated from China, Iran, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, etc), and orphans.

Community Heroes Rescue Families

Operation Blessing International, September 5th, 2002

[accessed 6 June 2011]

Nestled in a rural village of southern Kazakhstan, approximately 5,000 men, women and children live a hand-to-mouth existence. Closed factories contribute to high unemployment. Some survive through farming, making the equivalent to $20 per month.  A MedEx Kit was given to the Enbekshy Church, and a midwife, an excited woman named Kumesi, will oversee the program in this village where 70 percent of 1,500 persons are unemployed and there are more than 20 street children.

Letter to the E.U. General Affairs Council

Human Rights Watch, E.U.-Kazakhstan and E.U.-Kyrgyzstan Cooperation Council Meetings, July 5, 2004

[accessed 6 June 2011]

Kazakhstan is also home to one of the fastest-growing AIDS epidemics in the world, threatening the country’s economic and social development. Severe human rights abuses, including systematic police brutality against drug users, sex workers, street children and others most vulnerable to the infection are fueling the spread of the disease.

Juvenile Justice in Kazakhstan [PDF]

The Danish Centre for Human Rights and UNICEF 2001, Evaluations and Reviews of Partnership Programmes, No 22, Assessment 2000 -- ISBN: 87-90744-50-0 -- ISSN: 1399-6029

[accessed 6 June 2011]

[accessed 19 December 2016]

2. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS - In the case of Kazakhstan, the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency is attributed to the transition to a market economy and the dissolution of prior social structures of Soviet times, which resulted in increased economic pressure and strain on families.  Thus, an increased number of children is at risk, such as children coming out of orphanages, children form broken families with violence and substance abuse, and children who must support themselves and their families.

A Generation at Risk - Children of Kazakstan and Kyrgyzstan

Armin Bauer, Nina Boschmann, David Green, and Kathleen Kuehnast.Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB), 1998, 158 pages -- ISBN: 971-561-097-8

[accessed 12 June 2011]

[accessed 19 December 2016]

Children in Central Asia are currently experiencing an enormous rift in what were once constants in their everyday lives. In spite of the high regard for them in the Central Asian societies, the transition has had devastating effects on many families. Children bear much of the social costs of this transition period and are at risk of losing the ability to realize their own development potential.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Street Children - Kazakhstan",, [accessed <date>]