Main Menu
Street Children
Human Trafficking


Poverty & Hunger

Republic of


In the early years of the 21st Century


Description: Description: Description: Kazakhstan

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Kazakhstan in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

Kazakhstan, with its vast and diverse landscape, experiences an extreme continental climate characterized by long, hot summers and bitterly cold winters. During the summer months, Kazakhstan basks in intense heat. The northern regions witness temperatures soaring to scorching levels. For instance, in the capital city of Nur-Sultan (formerly known as Astana), the mercury can climb to 52°C. These high temperatures are a result of the country’s distance from the ocean, which leads to a dry and continental climate.

Winters in Kazakhstan are no less extreme. The northern parts of the country endure long and frigid winters. In some years, temperatures plummet to a bone-chilling -52°C. However, occasional thaws bring relief, with temperatures rising to around 5°C.

Extreme Cold Events: Kazakhstan has witnessed extreme cold spells, with temperatures dropping as low as minus 40 degrees centigrade. These harsh conditions prompt school closures and disrupt daily life due to heavy snowfall and blizzards.  adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Kazakhstan

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 31 December 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 5 January 2021]

Kazakhstan's vast hydrocarbon and mineral reserves form the backbone of its economy. Geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, Kazakhstan, g possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. The government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries and has made initial attempts to diversify its economy by targeting sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing for greater development and investment. It also adopted a Subsoil Code in December 2017 with the aim of increasing exploration and investment in the hydrocarbon, and particularly mining, sectors.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $26,300 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 18.1%

industry: 20.4%

services: 61.6% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 2.6% (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 17.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 97.4% of population

Physicians density: 3.98 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 99.9% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Kazakhstan

[accessed 8 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Hunger In Kazakhstan: Past, Present And Future

~ Healthcare In Kazakhstan: Problems And Solutions

~ Poverty In Kazakhstan Is Like A Small Business

~ 10 Facts About Sanitation In Kazakhstan

~ Water Competition And Efficiency In Kazakhstan

~ 4 Facts About Kazakhstan Bank Debts

~ 10 Facts About Life Expectancy In Kazakhstan

~ Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions In Kazakhstan

~ Cautious Hope: Top 10 Facts About Poverty In Kazakhstan

'A Miserable Existence': Farmers Feed Animals Cardboard As Kazakh Drought Bites

Manas Kaiyrtayuly & Ray Furlong, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, RFE/RL Kazakh Service, 13 September 2021

[accessed 13 September 2021]

Kazakh farmers have taken to feeding their animals a sludge made of cardboard and water amid a drought that they say is the worst in living memory. It's estimated that thousands of animals have died, plunging farmers into poverty in Manghystau Province in western Kazakhstan. Some have predicted worse to come. "Winter is coming," said one farmer. "Hungry animals won't be able to survive the cold."

Central Asian Heat Wave And Drought Creating Water Shortages, Crop Failures

Bruce Pannier, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty RFE/RL, 24 June 24 June 2021

[accessed 24 June 2021]

The Drought -- For several months it has been obvious Central Asia was heading into a period of severe drought.

The massive Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan is a bellwether for 2021 in Central Asia.

Already in March, officials in Kyrgyzstan were warning the level of water in the reservoir was alarmingly low -- 8.7 billion cubic meters (bcm) -- well below the capacity of 19.5 bcm.

The World Bank in Kazakhstan

[accessed 22 April 2021]

Economic growth in Kazakhstan is expected to rebound to 3.2%, driven by a resumption in domestic activity, a recovery in global demand for oil, continued fiscal support measures, and a successful national vaccination campaign against the COVID-19 virus.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 31 December 2020]

The Kazakhstan economy is extremely well-endowed with large tracts of arable land and rich reserves of coal, oil, and rare metals. Animal herding was the mainstay of the nomadic Kazakh population before their incorporation into the Soviet Union; wool production remains an important agricultural product today, along with grains and meat.

Like other countries of the former USSR, Kazakhstan faced serious economic dislocation after 1991, resulting from the disruption of trade with other post-Soviet republics, an end to the flow of official revenues from the Soviet central government, the decline in state production orders, and the need for sudden currency adjustments. Estimated GDP fell by 8.5% in 1991, 14% in 1992, 15.3% in 1993, and 25% in 1994.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Prof. Martin Patt, "Poverty - Kazakhstan",, [accessed <date>]