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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025                


Kazakhstan, the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources.

The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing its manufacturing potential. The policy changed the corporate tax code to

Description: Kazakhstan

favor domestic industry as a means to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Kazakhstan.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving.  Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving.  Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity.  There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

HELP for Victims

International Organization for Migration
7172 790345
Country code: 7-



Russian National Consultation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

ECPAT International, Moscow, 1-2 March 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 6 June 2011]

PROBLEM VARIES ACCORDING TO THE REGION - Internal trafficking within Russia and the CIS countries (Moldova, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan) is widespread owing to rising demand for sex services, including child prostitution, in big cities, particularly in Moscow and St. Petersburg. As it does not cost much to transfer children within the country, criminals do not face major financial obstacles during the whole process.


*** ARCHIVES ***

ECPAT Country Monitoring Report [PDF]

Laura Jokinen, ECPAT International, 2013

[accessed 1 September 2020]

Desk review of existing information on the sexual exploitation of children (SEC) in Kazakhstan. The report looks at protection mechanisms, responses, preventive measures, child and youth participation in fighting SEC, and makes recommendations for action against SEC.

Human Rights Reports » 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 1 September 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - The law does not specify the minimum age for consensual sex, but it provides for eight to 15 years in prison for individuals convicted of forcing boys or girls younger than age 18 to have sexual intercourse. UNICEF reported that data on sexual abuse of children, child prostitution, child pornography, child trafficking, and bride kidnapping and forced marriage of girls remains scarce, making it difficult to assess the scale of rights violations.

The law criminalizes the production and distribution of child pornography and provides administrative penalties to cover the sale of pornographic materials to minors. The country retains administrative penalties for child pornography. Perpetrators convicted of sexual offenses against minors receive a lifetime ban on working with children.

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2019

[accessed 1 September 2020]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

[page 670]

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Internal Affairs investigated 11 cases, including the commercial sexual exploitation of 9 children. Two perpetrators were convicted, and the nine victims were referred to social services. (29)

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 6 June 2003

[accessed 16 February 2011]

[72] The Committee is concerned at:

(a) The growing involvement of children in the sex industry and the apparent indifference of society towards the issue of child prostitution, including reports of parents themselves reportedly forcing their children to earn money through prostitution;

(b) The lack of specialized centers to accommodate and provide qualified services, including psychotherapeutic and rehabilitation and reintegration programs, for child victims of sexual violence.

Report by Special Rapporteur [DOC]

UN Economic and Social Council Commission on Human Rights, Fifty-ninth session, 6 January 2003$FILE/G0310090.doc

[accessed 6 June 2011]

[49] The sale of children and enticing children into prostitution are criminal offences.  In the first nine months of 2002, one man and four women were prosecuted under article 133 of the Criminal Code for trafficking in minors.  In the same period, 71 persons were prosecuted under article 132 for enticing minors into prostitution, vagrancy or begging. In one reported case, a woman ran a coordinated criminal organization procuring and enticing minors into prostitution.  On 27 April 2001 the Taraz city court sentenced her to four years’ imprisonment.  In all such cases the minor is not held criminally liable, and the Supreme Court of Kazakhstan has standard rules on judicial practice in cases involving offences by minors to ensure the safeguarding of their rights. Minors may be taken into custody as a preventive measure or detained where they have committed a serious offence.

National Consultation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

ECPAT International, Almaty, 26 October 2005

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 6 June 2011]

A study commissioned in Kazakhstan by ECPAT International for a situational analysis on the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has focused, among other things, on the legal protection afforded to families and children in the country and on the perception of the phenomenon by Kazakh society, while trying to identify existing gaps and possible remedies needed.




The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 16 February 2011]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Reports indicate a rise in the number of children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, pornography and drug trafficking in urban areas. Children working as domestic servants are often invisible and, for this reason, also vulnerable to exploitation. Kazakhstan is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labor. Girls in their teens are one of the primary targets for trafficking from Kazakhstan to other countries. Internal trafficking from rural to urban areas also occurs.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 9 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – Traffickers targeted young women in their teens and 20s for sexual exploitation.

Adolescents raised in orphanages, regardless of gender, and residents of rural and economically disadvantaged areas were particularly vulnerable to being trafficked. The country's relative prosperity otherwise served as a factor against citizens being trafficked through seeking employment abroad. During the year an orphanage director in the southern part of the country was caught attempting to traffic teenage girls to the UAE. The highly publicized case remained ongoing at year's end.

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