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Poverty & Hunger

Federal Republic of


In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Nigeria

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Nigeria in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

Nigeria experiences heatwaves, especially in the northern regions. The annual mean temperature is around 26.9°C. During heatwaves, temperatures can soar above 35°C, posing risks to health and well-being. The hot semi-arid climate in the northern part of the country makes it more vulnerable to these extreme heat events.

In the northeast, there can be significant temperature fluctuations. Before the onset of rains, temperatures can rise as high as 44°C, while during the dry season (between December and February), they drop to as low as 6°C.

In summary, Nigeria is classified as one of the ten most vulnerable countries to climate change globally. The country faces exposure to various extreme weather events, including floods, droughts, sandstorms, and heatwaves.adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Nigeria

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 16 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 6 January 2021]

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,900 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 70%

industry: 10%

services: 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.5% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 917 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.4 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 77.9% of population

Physicians density: 0.45 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 59.7% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 59.3% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Nigeria

[accessed 23 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ How Covid-19 Has Slowed Nigeria’s Access To Medicine

~ 5 Social Issues Dividing Nigeria

~ The Potential Of CCT Programs In Nigeria

~ Gender Inequality In Nigeria’s Tech Industry

~ A Promise To Prioritize Teachers In Nigeria

Conflict, climate change, and COVID-19 drive extreme hunger

Oxfam, 9 July 2021

[accessed 19 July 2021]

The effects of conflict, COVID-19, and climate change have intensified the global hunger crisis.

WEST AFRICAN SAHEL - DRIVERS OF HUNGER: CONFLICT -- The region encompassing Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal has seen a 67 percent increase in hunger since last year. Continued violence has forced 5.3 million people to flee their homes. Insecurity has cut off farmers from their agriculture. Last year, along with the economic impact of COVID-19, the climate crisis disrupted the agricultural season, limiting stocks and people’s livelihoods.

Hunger Hotspots - FAO-WFP early warnings on acute food insecurity - March to July 2021 outlook

Food and Agriculture Org of the UN FAO, World Food Program WFP, 2021

[accessed 30 May 2021]

COUNTRIES WITH CATASTROPHIC SITUATIONS: FAMINE-LIKE CONDITIONS OR FACTORS LEADING TO A RISK OF FAMINE -- In the conflict-affected areas of northern Nigeria, the situation is extremely concerning given the marked deterioration of food security conditions despite the recent harvest. Projections for the upcoming lean season (June-August 2021) portray a further marked deterioration with people in emergency acute food insecurity (CH Phase 4) likely to almost double, rising to over 1.2 million* compared to over 669 000 people estimated in June to August 2020. The majority of people with critical food insecurity are in Borno State, as a result of heavy humanitarian access constraints and ongoing conflict. Here, the localities of Abadam, Dikwa, Guzamala, Kukawa and Marte, as well as other only-partially accessible garrison towns, remain of extreme concern. Should the situation deteriorate further, these areas may be at risk of famine.

Hunger, poverty and challenge of innovative food storage

Patricia Pessu, Punch, 17 May 2021

[accessed 19 May 2021]

Outside of those months when both corn and pear are in season, this delicious combination is unavailable. Interestingly, during those harvest months, enough corn and pear to sustain the country for a substantial period, perhaps even an entire year, may have been harvested. But with inadequate knowledge and utilisation of modern and cost-effective storage and preservation methods, tonnes of maize and pear end up wasted every year.

The same applies to many other agricultural commodities in Nigeria. At harvest periods, there is often a surplus, but in the absence of proper storage, a huge proportion of these harvests eventually go to waste. These perennial losses pose a huge threat to the economic wellbeing of farmers, a majority of whom operate at the subsistence level.

US Embassy, Foundation Empower Schoolgirls With Technological Skills

News Agency of Nigeria NAN, 9 May 2021

[accessed 9 May 2021]

A Non-Governmental Organization, Odyssey Educational Foundation, in collaboration with the United States Embassy in Nigeria on Saturday equipped underprivileged girls in public schools within the FCT with 21st century technological skills.

The foundation’s Country Director, Stella Denis, said during the 2021 Technovation ceremony in Abuja, that the effort was aimed at promoting Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education and application among young girls.

“Over the years, we have had girls develop mobile apps aimed at tackling community problems ranging from poor education, poverty and hunger, gender inequalities, corruption to climate change, ’’she said.

Food inflation pushing millions of Nigerians into hunger, poverty

BizWatchNigeria, 26 April 2021

[accessed 28 April 2021]

The prices of essential food items are rising beyond the reach of Nigerians and this situation is deepening hunger and dragging more people into poverty.

Last year, the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown affected local food production and farm output, leading to economic instability and loss of jobs.

Loss of means of livelihood for many Nigerians and slashed salaries for others have reduced their ability to buy basic food items, heightening hunger and thwarting cash transfer initiatives of the Nigerian authorities to households and businesses.

The rise in the food inflation was caused by increases in prices of bread and cereals, potatoes, yam, and other tubers, Meat, Vegetables, Fish, Oils and fats, and fruits.

From MDGs to SDGs: The Nigeria Story

This Day, 11 April 2021

[accessed 11 April 2021]

In addition, the OSSAP-SDGs has between 2016 and 2019 constructed about 60 Type A & Type B Primary Health Centres, rehabilitated 12 different Hospitals, while 75 Intensive Care and Rural Ambulances have been supplied to various Hospitals across the country. The Type A & B Primary Healthcare Centres are located in Jimeta, Adamawa State, Tilde Fulani, Toro LGA in Bauchi State, Ibbi, Taraba North Senatorial District in Taraba State, Kudu, Mokwa Niger Central Senatorial District in Niger State, Daura in Katsina State, Nasarawa town, Gudi, Akwanga LGA in Nasarawa state and Ogun Central Senatorial District, Ogun State.

These interventions are directly linked to the achievement of Goal 3 on ‘Quality Health and Well-being for all’ and other cross-cutting SDGs. The Targets include reducing the global maternal and mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100, 000 live births, end preventable deaths of new born and children under 5years old and ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, which includes family planning, information and education. The efforts of the Office in addressing this, has been receiving commendation.

How expanding mobile broadband coverage is lifting millions out of poverty

Castelan, Castells, Masaki, and Cruz, World Bank, 16 December 2020

[accessed 17 December 2020]

To contribute to having a clearer picture of how mobile broadband impacts welfare, a joint team from the World Bank and the GSMA recently developed an innovative study looking at the impact of mobile broadband on poverty reduction in Nigeria—the largest mobile market and economy in Africa.

So what did we find? Not only did mobile broadband improve welfare but its effects were larger for those households that were exposed a longer period of time to areas with a broadband signal.

Extreme poverty for these households declined by about 4 percentage points after one year of gaining mobile broadband coverage; and about 7 percentage points after two or more years of coverage (at the $1.90 per day poverty line) (Figure 2). This corresponds to lifting approximately 2.5 million people out of extreme poverty in the country. The welfare effects were particularly pronounced for rural households. These results attest to the critical role that mobile broadband plays in poverty reduction in Nigeria, and potentially more broadly across Africa.

Action Against Hunger - Nigeria

[accessed 21 March 2021]

Nigeria is Africa’s wealthiest, most populous nation, and its fastest-growing economy. Despite this, more than half of the country lives below the poverty line, and northern Nigeria suffers the world’s third highest level of chronic undernutrition among children. This silent crisis is caused by lack of access to safe water and sanitation, rising food insecurity, the disruption of basic services due to conflict, and poor knowledge of healthy feeding practices for infants and young children.

The World Bank in Nigeria

[accessed 21 April 2021]

The World Bank is helping to fight poverty and improve living standards for the people of Nigeria with more than 130 IBRD loans and IDA credits since 1958.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 17 December 2020]

The Nigerian economy, with an enterprising population and a wealth of natural resources, offers tremendous potential for economic growth. However, poor economic policy, political instability, and an overreliance on oil exports has created severe structural problems in the economy. Crude oil accounted for over 95% of exports and over 80% of government revenue in 2002; Nigeria is the world's sixth-largest exporter of oil. However, agricultural remains the basic economic activity for the majority of Nigerians. Crop yields have not kept pace with the average population growth of 3%, and Nigeria must import most of its food.

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