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In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Mozambique

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Mozambique in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

Mozambique, a country that faces the impacts of climate change, is particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events and in recent years has witnessed a surge in their frequency.  The country experiences cyclical flooding and tropical cyclones during the rainy season, from April to October. These can have devastating effects on communities and infrastructure, posing significant challenges for agriculture, livelihoods, and overall resilience. – adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Mozambique

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 4 January 2021]

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - at independence in 1975, was one of the world's poorest countries; in 1987, the government implemented economic reforms to stabilize the economy; these steps, combined with donor assistance and political stability propelled the country’s GDP, from $4 billion in 1993 to about $37 billion in 2017

GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,300 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 74.4%

industry: 3.9%

services: 21.7% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate: 24.5% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 46.1% (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 289 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 64.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.9 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 70.7% of population

Physicians density: 0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 34.1% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 24.2% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Mozambique

[accessed 22 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Eliminating Poverty: Update On SDG 1 In Mozambique

~ Improvements To Healthcare In Mozambique

~ Initiative Underway To Aid Poverty In Mozambique

~ Natural Gas Industry Creates Job Opportunity For Mozambique

~ How Foreign Aid In Mozambique Is Put To Work

~ How The DFC Is Investing In A Sustainable Future For Mozambique

~ The DFC Energy Projects In Mozambique

~ Women’s Rights In Mozambique: A Work In Progress

The Linkage Between Poverty and Leprosy

Nalikena Muyunda Siyoto, Mulungushi University-Zambia

[ Long URL]

[accessed 12 April 2022]

Some studies have shown positive linkages between food shortage and food insecurity with the occurrence of leprosy, and they suggest that impaired host immune response against the causative bacteria as a result of insufficient nutritional intake is the possible cause of this condition (Kerr-Pontes et al, 2006). Insufficient nutrition is related to poverty as only poor persons can lack nutrition. Some of the world’s poorest areas, including Mozambique, Bangladesh and India, are disproportionately burdened by leprosy and other neglected tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis. This is because poor living conditions can act as a breeding ground for such diseases or exacerbate symptoms of existing ailments.

The World Bank in Mozambique

[accessed 21 April 2021]

World Bank assistance has evolved from helping to stabilize the economy to close collaboration with the government, development partners, and civil society.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 2 January 2020]

Mozambique, with its agricultural economy and considerable mineral reserves, is a highly indebted, poverty-stricken country. Civil war, ineffective socialist economic policies, and severe droughts plagued Mozambique's economy throughout the 1980s, leaving it heavily dependent on foreign aid.

Problems remain, however, as the poorly trained workforce and the lack of savings continue to constrain growth. The use of outdated data collection systems, geared more to a state-managed economy, means that the increasing vitality of the private sector tends to go unmeasured.

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