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Poverty & Hunger

Arab Republic of


In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Description: Egypt

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Egypt in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


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*** Extreme Weather ***

Egypt is currently experiencing a cold wave, with experts deeming the current spell as the coldest in almost ten years. The country has been recently witnessing unfamiliar weather patterns, including colder winters with temperatures dropping to unprecedented degrees and summers with Gulf-like heat. – Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Egypt

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 28 December 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 5 January 2021]

Despite Egypt’s mixed record for attracting foreign investment over the past two decades, poor living conditions and limited job opportunities have contributed to public discontent. These socioeconomic pressures were a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 has restricted economic growth and failed to alleviate persistent unemployment, especially among the young.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,700 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 25.1%

services: 49.1% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 27.8% (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 37 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.7 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 100% of population

Physicians density: 0.8 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 98.5% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Egypt

[accessed 28 January 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Energy Reform: Renewable Energy In Egypt

~ Tackling Elderly Poverty In Egypt

~ Creating Economic Gender Parity In Egypt

~ Sudanese Refugees In Egypt Face Impoverished Conditions

~ Understanding Hunger In Egypt

~ Innovations In Poverty Eradication In Egypt

Egypt's declining poverty rates indicate success of economic reform program

Huaxia, Editor, Xinhua News Agency, 9 December 2020

[accessed 12 December 2020]

Egypt recently saw for the first time over the past twenty years a decrease in its poverty rates, which the analysts have attributed to the success of the economic reform program and the accompanying social protection policies.

Egypt has adopted by the end of 2016 an economic reform program that included the liberation of the local currency, gradual lift of subsidy on fuel and electricity, as well as endorsement of a package of economic legislations.

He also referred to the "100 Million Healthy Lives" campaign for the treatment and early detection of people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as a "turning point" in Egypt's healthcare system.

Those initiatives, covering the free diagnose and medication, have highly eased the burdens on the Egyptian families that spend 20 percent of their income on treatment and health care. "Now they could redirect the money to other important sectors," he added.

The World Bank in Egypt

[accessed 18 April 2021]

The World Bank Group is preparing a new Systematic Country Diagnosis (SCD) to inform the new CPF 2022–2026, with job creation and socio-economic inclusion the core theme.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 28 December 2020]

The Egyptian economy has been historically agricultural, with cotton as the mainstay. Land prices are extremely high because of the shortage of arable land, and output of food is not sufficient to meet the needs of a 2.1% population growth rate as of 2003. Although Egypt has expanded its private sector in recent years, industry remains centrally controlled and for the most part government owned; since the 1950s, the government has developed the petroleum, services, and construction sectors, largely at the expense of agriculture.

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