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Human Trafficking
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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025                        

Arab Republic of Egypt

Cairo has aggressively pursued economic reforms to encourage inflows of foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth.

Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards for the average Egyptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies for basic necessities.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Egypt.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving.  Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving.  Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity.  There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

HELP for Victims

National Council for Childhood and Motherhood
Country code: 20-



A Situational Analysis of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Egypt [PDF]

Karam Saber, ECPAT International: Report on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Egypt, March 2003

[accessed 10 May 2011]

[2.1.2] Prostitution - There is evidence that prostitution is spreading in Egypt and on a broad scale. However in depth research has been difficult due a deep fear of legal and social punishment, which leads to denial of its existence. Child sexual exploitation through prostitution is thus even more difficult to document.


*** ARCHIVES ***

ECPAT Country Monitoring Report [PDF]

Renata Coccaro, ECPAT International, 2008

[accessed 27 August 2020]

Desk review of existing information on the sexual exploitation of children (SEC) in Egypt. The report looks at protection mechanisms, responses, preventive measures, child and youth participation in fighting SEC, and makes recommendations for action against SEC.

Human Rights Reports » 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 27 August 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - The law provides for sentences of not less than five years’ imprisonment and fines of up to LE 200,000 ($12,120) for conviction of commercial sexual exploitation of children and child pornography. The government did not adequately enforce the law. The minimum age for consensual sex is age 18.

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2019

[accessed 27 August 2020]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

[page 463]

Some girls are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation under the pretext of temporary marriage to wealthy foreign men, mostly from Persian Gulf countries. (4,13,30) In the past 2 years, Egyptian children were trafficked to Italy, where they were used for bonded child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities. (11,29,32-37) Although the numbers decreased in 2017, and further in 2018, approximately 930 unaccompanied Egyptian children were registered in Italy in 2018 and another 300 had escaped from their shelters in Italy. Some Egyptian children continued to fall victim to labor exploitation in agriculture and food services, and some were sexually exploited. (38)

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 26 January 2001

[accessed 27 February 2011]

[51] The Committee is concerned at the insufficient data and awareness of the phenomenon of commercial sexual exploitation of children in Egypt.

Five Years After Stockholm [PDF]

ECPAT: Fifth Report on implementation of the Agenda for Action

ECPAT International, November 2001

[accessed 13 September 2011]

[B] COUNTRY UPDATES – EGYPT – In Egypt the subject of CSEC is still very sensitive and considered to be a personal matter. Thus, the government, as well as local NGOs, are confronted by cultural as well as traditional obstacles in constructively and practically dealing with the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Moreover, the particular problem of CSEC has traditionally not been a priority as it considered to be limited in extent.  Accordingly, there is still insufficient data and awareness concerning the phenomenon.

Child Protection - Egypt's Street Children: Issues And Impact

United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 10 May 2011]

These children lead an unhealthy and often dangerous life that leaves them deprived of their basic needs for protection, guidance, and supervision and exposes them to different forms of exploitation and abuse. For many, survival on the street means begging and sexual exploitation by adults.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children - Middle East/North Africa region

based on the situation analysis written by Dr Najat M’jid for the Arab-African Forum against Commercial Sexual Exploitation, Rabat, Morocco, 24-26 October 2001 -- Source document (in French): Rapport sur la situation de l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants dans la région MENA, 10 septembre 2001

[accessed 10 May 2011]

These countries also have in common, however, a number of constraints that have hindered preparation of national plans of action. In all the countries of the region, there is cultural resistance to addressing the problem because the subject is largely taboo.  Often the issue is dealt with more generally under headings such as ‘violence’ and ‘trauma’.  This means that there has been no regional consensus on defining CSEC in law; in some countries, for example, it is looked upon as an indecent act, in others as rape, although in all 20 countries there is some section of the penal code that can be invoked against sexual abuse and exploitation.




ECPAT Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial exploitation of children - EGYPT [PDF]

ECPAT 2008

[accessed 10 May 2011]

Limited information is available on the extent and manifestations of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) in Egypt. The issue has not received much attention from government or non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and is still a very sensitive topic. Insufficient data, lack of awareness of the phenomenon and misguided gender perceptions seem to be the main initial challenges to adequately tackling CSEC in the Egyptian context.

In addition, girls aged between 15 and 18 who fall victim to commercial sexual exploitation may not be viewed as victims. In many cases, girls and women who are sexually abused are perceived by some as being responsible for the violence they suffered and thought to have been careless in protecting themselves.

Some qualitative and quantitative research has been conducted to examine the abuse and sexual exploitation of girls. This includes a study undertaken by ECPAT International in 2003 which investigated 16 police and media reports on “sexual violence perpetrated against children”, which in some cases involved commercial sexual exploitation. Despite the small sample, it was noted that some of the victims were girls under the age of 10 and generally from poor neighbourhoods. While there is some evidence that prostitution in general is spreading in Egypt, possibly on a broad scale, in-depth research has been difficult to conduct due to a deeply ingrained fear of legal and social punishment, which often results in a denial of the problem. The prostitution of children is even more difficult to document.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 3 February 2011]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Street children are particularly vulnerable to becoming involved in illicit activities, including stealing, smuggling, pornography, and prostitution. In particular, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is greatly under-acknowledged given that Egyptian cities (Alexandria and Cairo in particular) are reported destinations for sex tourism.

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