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Human Trafficking

Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children

In the first decade of the 21st Century                                         

Republic of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings and has come under increasing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest.


A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Uzbekistan.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspect(s) of street life are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got there, how they survive, and how some manage to leave the street.  Perhaps your paper could focus on how some street children abuse the public and how they are abused by the public … and how they abuse each other.  Would you like to write about market children? homeless children?  Sexual and labor exploitation? begging? violence? addiction? hunger? neglect? etc.  There is a lot to the subject of Street Children.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** ARCHIVES ***

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 16 January 2011]

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - UNICEF reports that approximately 34,500 children are living and working on the streets in Uzbekistan and are vulnerable to hazards associated with such an environment.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 11 February 2020]

CHILDREN - The law provides for children's rights and for free compulsory education through secondary school. In practice shortages and budget difficulties meant that many education expenses had to be paid by families. Teachers earned extremely low salaries and routinely demanded regular payments from students and their parents. According to government statistics, 98 percent of children completed secondary school. However, anecdotal evidence indicated that children increasingly dropped out of middle and high schools as economic circumstances continued to deteriorate.

The government subsidized health care, including for children, and boys and girls enjoyed equal access. As with education, low wages for doctors and poor funding of the health sector led to a widespread system of informal payments for services; in some cases this was a barrier to access for the poor. Those without an officially registered address, such as street children and children of migrant workers, did not have access to government health facilities.

Concluding Observations Of The Committee On The Rights Of The Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 12 October 2001

[accessed 9 March 2011]

[63] The Committee notes that the negative effects of the current economic crisis and consequent deterioration in the family environment have resulted in an increasing number of street children in Tashkent and other cities.

Supplementary NGO Report - Executive Summary [DOC]

Supplementary NGO Report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child  in the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 2001

[accessed 8 August 2011]

REPORTS OF THE STATE PARTIES ON THE CONVENTION - 3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES - A. NON-DISCRIMINATION - Street children represent one of the categories of children who are more often exposed to discrimination because of the very few opportunities available for their rehabilitation. A street child can be detained and placed in a intermediary reception-distribution center, which is under the management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, where he or she is held for up to one month before his or her parents are identified. After the identification of parents, the child is simply returned back to the family that he or she ran away from for some certain reasons that are not investigated. The reasons may be related to possible abuse of the child in the family, alcohol or drug addicted parents, etc. When the child is brought back to the family there are virtually no attempts to improve the family environment or try to find some other alternative forms of care to prevent the child from being in the streets again. As a result, some time later the child happens to be in the streets again, being exposed to and sometimes involved in prostitution, drugs, abusive behavior on the part of adults and other children, begging, etc.

Homeless Children Become Focus Of Concern In Uzbekistan [PDF]

Local Government And Public Service Reform Initiative • Open Society Institute, LGI Journal, Fall 2003

[accessed 8 August 2011]

[page 24]  FOREIGNERS IN RUSSIA: DEPORTATION, DISCRIMINATION AND MONEY - According to the study, there are several thousand homeless children in Tashkent, and the number is constantly growing as runaways from other parts of Uzbekistan drift to the capital. Child beggars have been a common sight on Tashkent streets for many years, according to Tashkent residents, who say the children are often recruited by drug dealers to act as couriers and perform other services.

The Children - Primary School Years

United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF

[accessed 8 August 2011],P13100_LANG_CODE:2331971,en

[accessed 15 January 2017]

Article 7(2). Effective and time-bound measures

Clause (d). Children at special risk. Street children

The official number of street children doubled between 2001 and 2004, to reach a total of 5,400 according to the Center of Social-Legal Assistance.  Although primary school enrolment is high (at 88% net according to SOWC 2005), attendance is significantly lower (78%, source: SOWC 2005), particularly in rural areas, as a result of rising indirect costs (such as books, meals, clothing and transportation) lower perceived benefits, a decline in school facilities and a need for children to contribute to household income. Children with special needs are particularly affected.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Street Children - Uzbekistan",, [accessed <date>]