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Human Trafficking

Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children

In the early decades of the 21st Century                                           

Republic of South Sudan

Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control opposition forces operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces killed tens of thousands and led to a dire humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure

A "revitalized" peace agreement was signed in September 2018 ending the fighting. Under the agreement, the government and various rebel groups agreed that the sides would form a unified national army and create a transitional government.

[The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2021]


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in South Sudan.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspect(s) of street life are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got there, how they survive, and how some manage to leave the street.  Perhaps your paper could focus on how some street children abuse the public and how they are abused by the public … and how they abuse each other.  Would you like to write about market children? homeless children?  Sexual and labor exploitation? begging? violence? addiction? hunger? neglect? etc.  There is a lot to the subject of Street Children.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


The heart-breaking misery of street children in South Sudan

Peter Deng, South Sudan News Now SSNN, 6 March 2021

[accessed 14 July 2021]

It’s sunny and windy in South Sudan and street children’s lives is punctuated by the hot temperatures and the noise of cars above their heads. Children are really suffering in South Sudan; they spend day and night on the street. They polish shoes and wash cars for their daily survival. They spend their nights sleeping in the commercial centers, in the shop verandas, bushes and on the other open spaces. Street children are misused by exploiters. They’re abused making them stress and traumatized.

There’re thousands of street children in Juba city and across South Sudan; many children who lost their parents during the civil war of 2013 are suffering in the street. They decided to be in the street because of the hardships; Furthermore, in Juba; some families can’t afford to put food on the table and to pay the school fees for their children. And Speaking to one of the street boys in Gudele, Wani James, he stated that “there is no food at home, mother can’t afford to medicate siblings and I, we’re willing to go to school but there are no school fees,” he stressed!

Juba's street children survive at risk of HIV

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks IRIN PlusNews, Juba, 22 June 2007

[accessed 10 March 2015]

One of the main dangers faced by homeless boys and girls is the sexual predators. "Sometimes it happens that men come and look for boys for sex; they are looking for boys and girls, but where I stay there are only boys," Mabior said.  "It is a mixture: Arabs, southerners, soldiers from all over ... some boys will go straight away for the money, others will resist and refuse, but this means they can get beaten." He said the children earned between US$0.05 and $0.10 for providing sexual services.  Although Mabior had heard of HIV, he had no real understanding of how it is spread, or the dangers posed by unprotected sex.

"There needs to be a campaign to raise awareness of HIV amongst children living on the streets; children need to be encouraged to know their status so they can avoid risky behaviour," Lemi said. "But testing is voluntary, and they will only come forward to be tested if they have been educated."

Making the Best of a Home Away from Home

Nhial Bol, Inter Press Service News Agency IPS, Khartoum, Jun 1, 1998

[accessed 25 July 2011]

Rahman says his parents left him in a railway station in western Sudan when he was very young. He finally made his way to the capital, Khartoum, where he says he has grown up. ''I know what is good and what is bad,'' says Rahman, adding that he entered the school of life early.

Another young boy, from Southern Sudan, told IPS that the young and the old on the streets, who have found themselves cast out of society, have tended to form new families among themselves to survive.

Pointing to an elderly man nearby, who is a leper, the young boy says: ''This man is my father, but not my real father, because he treats me like a son''


*** ARCHIVES ***

2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: South Sudan

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 30 March 2021

[accessed 14 July 2021]


The transitional constitution and the 2012 Education Act provide for tuition-free, compulsory, basic education through grade eight. Armed conflict and violence, however, were key factors preventing children from attending school. UNICEF estimated nearly three-quarters of the country’s children were not attending school.

Myth of JEM child soldiers

Mahmoud A. Suleiman, Sudan Tribune, June 26, 2008

[accessed 14 July 2021]

The Government of Sudan (GOS) is famous for recruiting children as soldiers in its armed forces during the wars it waged against its own citizens. In August 2006 the former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan condemned the practice of recruiting child soldiers in Sudan in a report to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) implicating the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) in child recruitment in southern Sudan, in Khartoum, and in child abduction and sexual violence in Darfur. His report said this continued despite peace deals in southern Sudan and the western Darfur region. The report also said sexual and other violence against children by army and militia groups persisted in southern and western Sudan. Mr Annan urged the leaders of Sudan’s Government of National Unity and the regional government of southern Sudan to end child recruitment. He added saying:” The current peace processes in Darfur and southern Sudan offer a real opportunity for the leaders of the Sudan to end the practice of recruitment and use of children once and for all." Furthermore, Mr Annan’s report stated that the National and Southern governments are directly accountable for violations by individuals under their command..

Human Rights Watch - Street Children

Human Rights Watch

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 25 July 2011]

In several countries where we have worked, notably Brazil, Bulgaria, and Sudan, the racial, ethnic, or religious identification of street children plays a significant role in their treatment. The disturbing notion of "social-cleansing" is applied to street children even when they are not distinguished as members of a particular racial, ethnic, or religious group. Branded as "anti-social," or demonstrating "anti-social behavior," street children are viewed with suspicion and fear by many who would simply like to see street children disappear.

Press Conference by Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict

UN Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York, 8 February 2007

[accessed 25 July 2011]

According to Ms. Coomaraswamy, communities were also ill-equipped to absorb child soldiers who were demobilized, leading many to return to the armed forces where they seemed to enjoy a clearer sense of status and belonging.  As a result of the finding, it had been decided that UNICEF would conduct a study to determine the types of social services needed to ensure that children were better rooted in the community upon leaving the military.

While in Juba, she said she had also noted the burgeoning number of orphans and street children throughout the Sudan, saying it would require programmatic intervention by the United Nations.

Information About Street Children - Sudan [DOC]

This report is taken from “A Civil Society Forum for North Africa and the Middle East on Promoting and Protecting the Rights of Street Children”, 3-6 March 2004, Cairo, Egypt

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 25 July 2011]

The privatization of public services, together with limited public awareness of children’s rights, has deprived street children of access to health, education, shelter and other social services. They are forced instead to rely on leftovers as a source of food, and to washing themselves and their clothes on the streets. This renders them vulnerable to a wide range of illnesses and infections such as cholera, gonorrhea, STDs and HIV/AIDS.

AIDS Orphans Throng The Streets

Nhial Bol, Inter Press Service News Agency IPS, Khartoum, January 13, 1999

[accessed 25 July 2011]

[accessed 8 January 2017]

Babitis is in charge of one of the hostels with 40 children, 14 of whom are AIDS orphans. “I don’t know the situation in other hostels, but I think they’re all the same,” he says. “It’s even worse in towns like Juba, the capital of southern Sudan, where parents are dying in large numbers to AIDS.”

The social worker says the AIDS orphans have experienced “terrifying treatment”.

“They were abused by their relations and some were forced to do work meant for adults in return for accommodation and feeding,” he says.

“I talked to one of the boys who was brought here recently by a church official. The boy, aged 13, claims he was kicked out of the house in 1995 by his uncle. “His uncle told him that his parents died of carelessness,” Babitis says. Before he was brought to the hostel in 1996, he had spent one year on the streets, eking out a living by begging.

Social workers accuse Sudan’s hardline Islamic regime of not doing enough to alleviate the plight of the street children. Instead, they say, the regime spends most of its time rounding up the children, who are regarded as an “eye sore”.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Street Children – South Sudan",, [accessed <date>]