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In the early years of the 21st Century


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Sudan in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


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*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Sudan

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 17 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 10 January 2021]

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - suffering from protracted social conflict and the loss of three quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan; struggling to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings; world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, producing 75-80% of the world’s total output; agriculture employs 80% of the work force.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,300 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 80%

industry: 7%

services: 13% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 19.6% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 46.5% (2009 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 295 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.5 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 87% of population

Physicians density: 0.26 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 44.9% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 45% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Sudan

[accessed 7 March 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Liquid Petroleum Gas Stoves Fight Poverty In Darfur

~ Foreign Aid To Sudan Goes To The Impoverished

~ USAID Provides $20 Million Worth Of Wheat To Sudan

~ The Education And Poverty Crisis In Sudan

~ Improving Women’s Rights In Sudan

~ Sudanese Refugees In Egypt Face Impoverished Conditions

~ The Fight For Women’s Rights In Sudan

World Bank chief: Sudan improving from situation of shortages

AlJazeera News, 30 September 2021

[ Long URL ]

[accessed 1 October 2021]

Last month, inflation slowed slightly to 388 percent and a sharply devalued currency has shown signs of stabilising, but many Sudanese are struggling with poverty, shortages of medicines, and power cuts.

Sudan has, for years, struggled with an array of economic woes, including a huge budget deficit and widespread shortages and soaring prices for essential goods.

Conditions worsened after the oil-rich south seceded in 2011 after decades of war, taking with it more than half of public revenues and 95 percent of exports.

During the next year, the World Bank says it will commit about $2bn in grants to help tackle poverty and inequality, and boost growth.

Hunger Hotspots - FAO-WFP early warnings on acute food insecurity - March to July 2021 outlook

Food and Agriculture Org of the UN FAO, World Food Program WFP, 2021

[accessed 30 May 2021]

OTHER COUNTRIES OF HIGHEST CONCERN -- In the Sudan, a deteriorating economic crisis – compounded by the socio-economic effects of COVID-19 – has resulted in exceptionally high food prices. Along with a potential uptick in intercommunal clashes, these factors are expected to continue driving high levels of acute food insecurity in the country where 1.3 million people were already estimated to be in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) from October to December 2020.

The World Bank in Sudan

[accessed 13 July 2021]

The secession of South Sudan induced multiple economic shocks. The biggest one being the loss of the oil revenue that accounted for more than half of Sudan’s government revenue and 95% of its exports. This has reduced economic growth, and resulted in double-digit consumer price inflation, which, together with increased fuel prices, triggered violent protests in September 2013.

In addition to the political and economic uncertainty, Sudan, like the rest of the world, has been experiencing the unprecedented social and economic impact of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic. The COVID-19 shock is expected to be transitory with potential recovery possible in 2021 but the overall adverse economic impact on Sudan will be substantial. The economic impact of COVID-19 includes the increased price of basic foods, rising unemployment, and falling exports. Restrictions on movement are making the economic situation worse, with commodity prices soaring across the country. According to the International Monetary Fund has already forecasted an overall economic stagnation in 2020 in Sudan.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 10 January 2021]

Sudan has an agricultural economy, employing 80% of the workforce, holding considerable potential for irrigated production. Cotton and sesame account for almost a quarter each of export earnings. The livestock sector is sizable as well. However, droughts have led to recent famines, and civil war has led to the virtual collapse of the economy. The slave trade is alive and prospering in Sudan, operating at about $50 a head in 1999.

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