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Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Poverty drives the unsuspecting poor into the hands of traffickers

Published reports & articles from 2000 to 2025                             

Republic of Sudan

Until the second half of 2008, Sudan's economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and large inflows of foreign direct investment.

Agricultural production remains important, because it employs 80% of the work force and contributes a third of GDP. The Darfur conflict, the aftermath of two decades of civil war in the south, the lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and a reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years despite rapid rises in average per capita income.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]


Sudan is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked internally for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation.  Sudan is also a transit and destination country for Ethiopian women trafficked abroad for domestic servitude.  Sudanese women and girls are trafficked within the country for domestic servitude. 

Sudanese women and girls are trafficked to Middle Eastern countries such as Qatar, for domestic servitude and to European countries, such as Poland, for sexual exploitation.  Sudanese children are trafficked through Yemen to Saudi Arabia for forced begging.  Sudanese gangs coerce other young Sudanese refugees into prostitution in nightclubs in Egypt.   - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2009   Check out a later country report here and possibly a full TIP Report here



CAUTION:  The following links have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Sudan.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to verify their authenticity or to validate their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of Human Trafficking are of particular interest to you.  Would you like to write about Forced-Labor?  Debt Bondage? Prostitution? Forced Begging? Child Soldiers? Sale of Organs? etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include precursors of trafficking such as poverty and hunger. There is a lot to the subject of Trafficking.  Scan other countries as well.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


880 Sudanese Slaves Liberated - Thousands Remain Enslaved in Darfur, Kordofan

Dr. John Eibner, The Seoul Times, Malwal KON, Sudan

[accessed 25 December 2010]

Most of the returning slaves documented by CSI reported gross abuse by their Arab Muslim masters. Among the most widespread forms of abuse are beatings, death threats, work without pay, forced Islamization and Arabization, and racial and religious slurs. The majority of women and older girls said they were raped or gang-raped while in bondage. A minority of the females claim they were subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) — a ritual that is the cultural norm for Baggara Arab women.

From Slavery to Freedom...Please read

Ayiti Ap Bon, 01-22-02

[accessed 25 December 2010]

Bok said he was captured by the raiders and, along with two little girls, was placed on a donkey and carted north. "The girls were crying, and when they did not stop after being told to do so, a soldier pulled out his pistol and shot one of them," he said. "The other girl kept crying, and then he shot her."

Bok was taken to Kirio, he said, where he was given to an Arab man, who presented him to the entire household. They all beat him. "They always called me 'abeed,' which means black slave, and I had to sleep with the cows," he said, adding that he was always fed leftovers from the master's table.

Widespread Gang-Rape of Boy Slaves

Maria Sliwa, Freedom Now World News, Sudan, July 15, 2002

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

[accessed 18 February 2018]

During a recent fact finding trip to Southern Sudan, Freedom Now World News discovered overwhelming evidence that young black, boy slaves are repeatedly gang-raped by their Arab masters. While previous reports on slavery have focused mainly on the gang-rape of female slaves, sociologist and investigative reporter, Maria Sliwa received testimony from numerous boy victims of rape.

Many of the redeemed slaves told Sliwa that in order to avoid rape, male slaves would try to escape but were hunted down like animals by their masters. The punishment for resisting rape is often severe beatings, death or limb amputation.

Saudi Religious Leader Calls for Slavery's Legalization

Daniel Pipes, Lion's Den, November 7, 2003

[accessed 25 December 2010]

Muslims, in contrast, still think the old way. Slavery still exists in a host of majority-Muslim countries (especially Sudan and Mauritania, also Saudi Arabia and Pakistan) and it is a taboo subject. To enable pious Muslims to avoid interest, an Islamic financial industry worth an estimated $150 billion has developed.

The challenge ahead is clear: Muslims must emulate their fellow monotheists by modernizing their religion with regard to slavery, interest and much else. No more fighting jihad to impose Muslim rule. No more endorsement of suicide terrorism. No more second-class citizenship for non-Muslims.



*** ARCHIVES ***

2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Sudan

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 30 March 2021

[accessed 12 July 2021]


The most common labor violations occurred in the farming and pastoral sectors. There were reports some children were engaged in forced labor, especially in the informal mining sector. Some domestic workers were reported to be working without pay. Female refugees were especially prone to labor violations.


Despite regulations, child labor persists in agriculture, mining, and informal sectors. Child labor was most common in the agricultural sector and also in other elements of the informal sector, including shoe shining, car washing, collecting medical and other resalable waste, street vending, begging, construction, and other menial labor. Children working in the informal sector were vulnerable to chronic illnesses and car accidents.

The ILO monitored forced child labor in gold mining. UNICEF received unverified reports revealing the dangerous conditions under which children were working in gold mining, including requirements to carry heavy loads and to work at night and within confined spaces and exposure to mercury and high temperatures. There were reports that children as young as age 10 were used in artisanal gold mining throughout the country. According to multiple reputable sources, thousands of children worked in artisanal gold mining, particularly in River Nile, Blue Nile, West Darfur, and North Darfur States, resulting in large numbers of students dropping out of school.

There were reports of the use of child soldiers by the SPLM-N, but numbers were difficult to verify (see section 1.g.).

Freedom House Country Reports

2020 Edition

[accessed 6 May 2020]


Migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who travel to and through Sudan remain vulnerable to criminal networks engaged in human trafficking and smuggling.

Sudanese children abducted for fighting and sex-UN

Reuters, Geneva, 8 Jun 8 2007

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Children in Sudan, especially in the Darfur region, continue to be abducted for use in battle, forced labour or sexual exploitation, a U.N. human rights body said on Friday.  The U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child called on the Khartoum government to intensify its efforts to prevent children being abducted and to help reunify victims with their families.  - htsccp

Activists ‘Outraged’ over Upgrading Status of Sudan

Hazel Trice Edney, National Newspaper Publishers Association, Washington, 26 October 2005

[accessed 26 December 2010]

“The government of Sudan is directly linked to an unprecedented revival of slavery in modern times, as confirmed by the U. S. government-sponsored ‘International Eminent Persons Group on Slavery, Abduction and Southern Sudan to Darfur,’” the group writes to Rice. “As the focus of the Sudanese government’s war policy shifted two years ago from Southern Sudan to Darfur, it continued to provide support for the militia that enslave Black women and children.”

U.S. Government's Elevation of Sudan's Slavery Status Challenged

Robert Spencer, press release from the Sudan Campaign, 17 Oct 2005

[accessed 26 December 2010]

A State Department memorandum justifying the Presidential Determination, dated 21 September, claims that the Government of Sudan has made "significant efforts" to bring itself into compliance with U.S. anti-trafficking legislation. The head of the State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking (TIP), Ambassador John Miller, reported on September 27 that Sudan and five other countries had taken "real steps" to combat slavery, including:  Establishing new police anti-trafficking units, arresting and charging traffickers, passing anti-trafficking laws, opening victims shelters, holding bilateral meetings to establish anti-trafficking cooperation, and establishing victims hotlines.

Neither the TIP office, nor the Sudanese government, however, has been able to provide details of such alleged measures.

A Hero in Hell. Former Drug Dealer Frees Abducted Child Soldiers in Sudan and Uganda

Maria Sliwa, Assist News Service ANS, Nimule, South Sudan, October 5, 2005

[accessed 2 January 2011]

In March of this year, a band of these small predators attacked a group of women who were collecting firewood near the border of Southern Sudan: just a few miles from Sam’s orphanage. The juvenile attackers managed to effortlessly hack off the lips and ears of seven of the victims and abduct several others.

The children of the LRA perform these acts at the bidding of their adult counterparts and make up about 80 percent of the rebel group, according to the United Nations. The LRA has kidnapped more than 20,000 children since 1988 and today its captives constitute the largest army of child soldiers in Africa.

For Sudan Slaves, Freedom at a Cost

Robyn Dixon, Los Angeles Times, Malual Kon, Sudan, Mar. 29, 2005

[accessed 4 September 2012]

The map of Majok’s life is carved on his body in scars. They trace the vicious beatings, his castration, the time he was left hanging by a rope around his neck. But grief and trauma have erased nearly every other scrap of his boyhood story.

Child Camel Jockeys Find Hope

Lucy Williamson, BBC News, Dubai, 4 February 2005

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Children from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sudan are still being smuggled to the United Arab Emirates to work as camel jockeys, despite a law passed two years ago banning their use.  It is not uncommon for child jockeys to fall off and be injured while racing, and their illegal status means race track owners are often reluctant to take them to hospital.  Instead, says Ansar Burney, the boys often arrive with broken hands or broken legs. And many, he says, have been sodomized.

Refugee From Sudan Tells Of Enslavement

Maria Lenis, The Daily Pennsylvanian, 2 March 2005

[accessed 26 June 2013]

Deng was given as a gift to an Arab family, and he had no chance of trying to escape in a predominantly Arab town.  "We were treated like animals," Deng said.

Nobody is paying attention

Susan Chaityn Lebovits, The Boston Globe, 20 August 2007

[accessed 21 August 2014]

[accessed 6 May 2020]

Slavery isn't a problem of the past. It's happening today, in our own backyard, and few people are aware of it.

Abuk Macamangui Bak was 12 years old when insurgents attacked her village in Sudan. She remembers the homes going up in flames and her brothers and sisters scattering in different directions. Abuk held her grandfather's hand as they ran; within moments he was shot and killed. Her voice shakes as she recounts the image.

Abuk was taken to a village in northern Sudan and sold as a slave to an Arabic family. She remained a captive for a decade and endured frequent beatings -- once, she said, because one of the cows she had taken to pasture ran off.

Sudanese plead for U.S. help

Tatiana Zarnowski, The Sentinel, 17 February 2005

[access date unavailable]

[accessed 25 February 2019]

Abuk Bak was 10 when the Arab militia came for the farm animals her family raised.  They attacked her village in southern Sudan, killing men and taking women and children on an all-day hike.  The next day, a man took Bak as his slave.

Black Sudanese Slaves Liberated CSI Urges UN Security Council to Emancipate Slaves and Impose Oil & Arms Embargo

U.S. Newswire, Washington, 18 November 2004

[accessed 21 August 2014]

The 191 freed slaves, mainly women and children, had been captured during Sudanese government-sponsored raids against Black African villages in Southern Sudan. They had been forced to serve Baggara Arab masters living in Northern Sudan, especially Darfur and neighboring Kordofan.

Slave interviews confirm a pattern of severe physical and psychological abuse. Freed female slaves claimed to have been raped and subjected to genital mutilation (FGM). Some freed boy slaves also reported having been raped by masters.

Sudanese Slave 'Crucified' by his Master Not Unusual in Central African Nation

Michael Ireland, Chief Correspondent, ASSIST News Service ANS, Khartoum, Sudan, 9 November 2004

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 18 February 2018]

"After brutally beating Joseph on the head and all over his body, the master laid him out on a wooden plank. He then nailed Joseph to the plank by driving nine-inch nails through his hands, knees and feet. He then poured acid on Joseph's legs to inflict even greater pain, and finally left him for dead."

Uganda: Forgotten crisis or global cover-up?

Genevieve Butler, AlertNet, BRUSSELS, 26 Oct 2004

[accessed 26 December 2010]

The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel group and religious sect, has been terrorising northern Uganda for years, uprooting almost the entire population of Acholiland, kidnapping children to camps in southern Sudan and forcing them to become fighters and sex slaves.

Mende Nazer: Fighting for Asylum

Tekla Szymanski, Associate Editor, World Press Review (VOL. 50, No. 01), January 2003

[accessed 26 December 2010]

The United Nations estimates that up to 15,000 Sudanese, primarily in southern Sudan, have been abducted and sold into slavery by militiamen loyal to Sudan’s Islamist government. According to Human Rights Watch, this slave trade is sanctioned by Sudan’s regime as part of its counterinsurgency war against the SPLM/A.

Slavery in Sudan

B.A. Robinson, Religious Tolerance, 5 August 1998

[accessed 26 December 2010]

OVERVIEW OF THE SUDAN SITUATION - There are at least 4 ways in which large numbers of Sudanese men, women and children lose their freedom:

Some marauding, government-backed militias, who are mainly from the Baggara tribe in western Sudan, attack primarily villages of the Dinka tribe in southern Sudan. These raids are one manifestation of a long-standing religious/racial/language conflict in that country that has been fueling a civil war for the past 40 years. More lives have allegedly been lost in Sudan's civil war than in Bosnia, Rwanda and Kosovo combined.

Because of the civil war, tribal animosities in the south have been aggravated. An ancient tribal practice has once more become common: women and children are being abducted by rival tribes. The victims are kidnapped and held until their relatives can scrape up enough ransom money to buy them back.

The Sudan Foundation, a non-Muslim group, claims that "Outside those areas controlled by the Sudanese Government, the old practice of inter-tribal feuding continues. In these raids prisoners are taken, who must then be ransomed. What looks like the purchase of slaves is actually the redemption of prisoners of war."

The Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), which is fighting the Sudanese government, has raided villagers and forced men and children to work as laborers or porters for the rebel army. Some have been forcibly conscripted into the army.

The Sudan Slave Story

Lucian Niemeyer, LNS Art, Santa Fe, NM, December 2000

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Two million people have died in the conflict, mostly civilians. In the center of this carnage a huge slave trade is going on. Civilians, mostly women and children, with their husbands slain  have little ability to resist and are being sold into slavery to the northern Sudan Muslims and the eastern emirates.

The Peace FAQ: Slavery, Slaves - Frequently Asked Questions

Prof. Walid Phares, before the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Near East and South Asia Subcommittee on "Religious Persecution in the Middle East." Washington DC, April 29, 1997

[accessed 26 December 2010]

ARE THE ARABS STILL BUYING AND SELLING AFRICANS? -  Religious persecution of Christians in the Middle East has reached extreme forms of human degradation: In Sudan, abundant reports by international human rights organizations have documented the enslavement by the northern fundamentalist forces of southern African Christians. According to the reports and experts, there are today between 600,000 and one million Black slaves from Sudan, who have either been taken to the north of that country to work as domestics or tending farms, or sold in other Arab countries.

Hundreds of slaves freed in Sudan

World Net Daily WND, April 02, 2004

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Over the past three weeks, the organization says, 503 slaves, mainly women and children, were gathered from government-run camps in northern Sudan. Most of the slaves had been held in the camps for between one and three years. The 374 slaves were tightly packed in open trucks, approximately 55 on each truck. The remaining 129 of the 503 slaves had not yet arrived as of yesterday.

Human Security in Sudan: The Report of a Canadian Assessment Mission [PDF]

Report was by Mr. John Harker for the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Ottawa, January 2000

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 18 February 2018]


INTRODUCTION - On October 26, 1999, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lloyd Axworthy and the Minister for International Co-operation, Maria Minna, announced several Canadian initiatives to bolster international efforts backing a negotiated settlement to the 43-year civil war in Sudan, including the announcement of an assessment mission to Sudan to examine allegations about human rights abuses, including the practice of slavery.

MANDATE - a) independently investigate human rights violations, specifically in reference to allegations of slavery and slavery-like practices in Sudan.

HUMAN RIGHTS AND SLAVERY - Leonardo Franco expressed the view that "the war and the pernicious strategies employed had also revived and exacerbated the problems of slavery in the Sudan", and was concerned about the plight of internally displaced persons, evidence that the war was being conducted in disregard of the principles of human rights, and the GOS bore the largest share of responsibility for violations.  Mike Dottridge, Director of Anti-Slavery, the world's oldest international human rights campaign, said in an appeal to Sudanese President Bashir early in 1999 that "the reality is that people being abducted from communities in northern Bahr al-Ghazal by government-backed militias are being exploited as slaves in the households of militiamen and others."

56 Boy Slaves Freed from Cattle Camps

Press Release from Christian Solidarity International CSI, Abyei Mou (Sudan), Nairobi, May 3, 2004

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 18 June 2017]

56 boy slaves were liberated at the end of April from the cattle camps of Arab nomads in the borderlands between northern and southern Sudan. Their liberation was a joint action undertaken by CSI and the Arab-Dinka Peace Committee based at the borderland market town of Warawar. The boys had been abducted during government sponsored jihad slave raids against Black African, non-Muslim communities in northern Bahr El Ghazal.

Upon releasing the slaves, the head of the Baggara cattle camps between the Bahr el Arab and Lol Rivers, Shegir Al Agar, claimed that the boys had been very happy with their masters, whom they affectionately called "father." However, interviews with the boys revealed a clear pattern of physical and psychological abuse. They reported cases of beatings, stabbings, boy rape, racial insults, death threats, and forcible conversion to Islam.

President Bush Urged to Help Free Sudanese Slaves Now; Conditions Ripe for Mass Exodus of Slaves

PRNewswire, Westlake Village, Calif., 28 May 2003;+Conditions...-a0102445847

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Since 1995, CSI has facilitated the liberation and return of slaves through an 'Underground Railway' based on local Arab-Black African peace agreements. Over 6,000 women and children have returned to their homes through this mechanism in the first half of this year. However, tens of thousands of women and children remain enslaved, according to community leaders in both Northern and Southern Sudan. CSI's extensive documentation reveals that Sudanese slaves are routinely subjected to beatings, gang rape, mutilation -- including FGM -- racial insults and forcible conversion.

My life as a modern-day slave

Joseph Winter, BBC News Online, 26 January 2004

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 28 September 2016]

She was just 12 when one night her village was targeted by Arab slave raiders, who snatched her away from her loving family to be a slave in far away Khartoum.  The story of her capture and life in servitude, published in her book Slave, reads like something from the Middle Ages but it happened in the early 1990s and she says this is still the lot of many young girls from southern Sudan.  She worked from first thing in the morning until late at night, washing, cleaning and ironing, without any pay or days off, sleeping in a locked shed in the garden.

Sudan's Slaves

Michael Coren, Sun Media, 11/25/2003

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

Women and children abducted in slave raids are roped by the neck or strapped to animals and then marched north. Along the way, many women and girls are repeatedly gang-raped. Children who will not be silent are shot on the spot. In the north, slaves are either kept by individual militia soldiers or sold in markets. Boys work as livestock herders, forced to sleep with the animals they care for.

"Some who try to escape have their Achilles tendons cut to hamper their ability to run. Masters typically use women and girls as domestics and concubines, cleaning by day and serving the master sexually by night. Survivors report being called "Abeed" (black slave), enduring daily beatings, and receiving awful food. Masters also strip slaves of their religious and cultural identities, giving them Arabic names and forcing them to pray as Muslims."

Dollars and sense

Mike Dottridge, Director of Anti-Slavery International, New Internationalist 337 August 2001

[accessed 26 December 2010]

This vast African nation has become known increasingly for its civil war and human-rights abuses – particularly slavery. Thousands of women and children have been abducted from the South and enslaved in the North. For the past 15 years, in the midst of civil war, one particular conflict zone, Bahr El Ghazal, has been the scene of regular raids. Children and women from the Dinka ethnic group have been taken prisoner, carried off and put to work, usually looking after cattle. Such raids have received the most attention, but other people in southern Sudan are also captured: through deception or as they flee war-torn areas.

Jihad Slavery: An Ugly Living Legacy

Alyssa A. Lappen, Front Page Magazine, 17 October 2003

[accessed 21 August 2014]

[accessed 6 May 2020]

The cruelty that Francis Bok experienced at age seven defies civilized human conception.

Today, Francis Bok is not only free. He has educated himself. And he has fulfilled his father’s dreams. He is like twelve men. He speaks for the enslaved Dinka masses, still suffering Islamic razzias in Southern Sudan. He speaks for his murdered parents and sisters. He speaks for the enslaved Dinka children, far less lucky than he.

Sudan Oilfields and Genocide

Lucian Niemeyer, "Africa, The Holocausts of Rwanda and Sudan", University of New Mexico Press, February 2006

[accessed 26 December 2010]

There is a killing place in Africa called the oilfields of the Sudan. Here the Sudanese government (GOS) practices systemic genocide with a vengeance on its own people. In this place a more able world has ignored the cries of cruelly persecuted natives who have lived here for many generations. In this place a terrible holocaust is taking place each day. Here a repressive government kills its own after the events of September 11th, with impunity, challenging the United Nations and the coalition's resolutions to enforce the protocol of 1948 outlawing genocide.

Thousands of slaves in Sudan

BBC News, 28 May 2003

[accessed 26 December 2010]

More than 11,000 people have been abducted in 20 years of slave-raiding in Sudan, a new report says.  Some 10,000 of these are still missing and many are being held as slaves, one of the report's authors told BBC News Online.

Dying to Leave

Thirteen, New York Public Media, September 25th, 2003

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 18 February 2018]

VICTIMS - Though frequent reports by former slaves indicate that raiders routinely shoot male villagers, others indicate that men are instead often used as soldiers or laborers by government or rebel forces. Women and children are the most frequent victims, used for domestic labor, sex, or as soldiers. Ages range from toddlers to women in their mid-30s. Most are subjected to some form of physical or sexual abuse. In Khartoum, children are often presented to government officials as gifts, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR reported in 2000. Even al Qaeda is allegedly involved in Sudan’s trade in humans. A 1998 U.S. State Department human rights study reported that intercepted radio communications indicated that Osama bin Laden offered one Kalashnikov gun for each child brought to work on his marijuana farms in Sudan.

SLAVERY IN SUDAN: The New Holocaust - Why Israel and not Sudan, is singled out

Charles Jacobs, President of the American Anti-Slavery Group, Boston Globe, 10/5/2002

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

An instructive case is Sudan. Atrocities there exceed every other world horror. For 10 years the blacks of South Sudan have been victims of an onslaught that has taken more than 2 million lives. Colin Powell calls it ''the worst human rights nightmare on the planet.'' Yet with the important exception of the black Christian community here, there has been a disturbingly muted reaction from well-known American human rights champions. The media cover the deaths in Sudan only occasionally.

Slavery and Slave Redemption in the Sudan

Human Rights Watch Backgrounder, March 2002

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Human Rights Watch has long denounced slavery in Sudan in the context of the nineteen-year civil war. In this contemporary form of slavery government-backed and armed militia of the Baggara tribes raid to capture children and women who are then held in conditions of slavery in western Sudan and elsewhere. They are forced to work for free in homes and in fields, punished when they refuse, and abused physically and sometimes sexually.

War and Slavery in Sudan

Jok Madut Jok, Loyola Marymount University, 2001, ISBN 978-0-8122-3595-1

[accessed 26 December 2010]

Jok emphasizes that the contemporary practice of slavery in Sudan is not the result of two decades of civil war, as conventional wisdom in the media would have one believe. Instead he revisits the historic hostilities between the Islamic world to the north and, to the south, the Black African peoples, many of whom are Christian converts.

For Arab traders "the nation of the blacks," or Bilad Al-Sudan, has traditionally been the source of slaves. When the slave trade developed into corporate enterprise in the nineteenth century, the slave-takers articulated distinctions based on race, ethnicity, and religion that marked the black, infidel southerners as indisputably inferior and therefore "natural" slaves. Such distinctions have survived for decades and have fueled various forms of oppression of the black south, even during those periods when slavery has not been authorized by the government. When it is authorized, as it is today, slavery then becomes the extreme form of this systemic oppression.

Slavery In Sudan is Real

New Sudan African Society

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 18 February 2018]

MODERN DAY SLAVERY - Modern day slavery first emerged with the support of the government of Sudan during the time Sadiq el Mahdi was Prime Minister of Sudan, 1986-1989. The complicity of the Government of Sudan (GOS) in encouraging the murahileen Arab militia were first documented by 2 University of Khartoum professors, Dr. Ushari Mahamoud and Dr. Suleyman Ali Baldo themselves devout Muslims and Arabs from the North.

DESCRIPTION OF INCIDENT - In 1987, Dr.Ushari Mahmoud co-authored an independent investigation into a massacre in the Sudanese town of ed Dai'en and the revival of practices of slavery in the region. He concluded that the government was actively encouraging the elements who were responsible for both the massacre and the resurgence of slavery..."

Slavery in Sudan Must End

Joe Madison, NewsMax, Feb. 13, 2001

[accessed 26 June 2013]

  A 13-year-old boy, Yak Kenyang Adeiu, had all his fingers cut off by his slave master.

  Mawien Aher Bol had his finger cut off by his master because he lost a goat.

  Angot Wol Angra was attacked by her master's brother with a knife when she lost a goat.

  Arek Kiir had her throat cut and her chest burned because she refused to give up her infant to a slave master.

  Agom Bol Akuei and her children were forced to carry a heavy load of salt, looted by slave traders. She collapsed under the weight, and the load of salt crushed her jaw. She received no medical attention.

  Garang Deng Yel and Athian Athian Athian had their arms chopped off with an ax by slave owners when they went north to try to rescue their enslaved wives and children.

  A woman who walked with a severe limp recounted to me how she had been gang-raped by her master and 10 others. When she resisted, the men violently forced her legs apart, dislocating one of her hips from the joint.

Is there Slavery in Sudan? [PDF]

Anti-Slavery International, March 2001

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]



58. I am from Warawar [possibly Wedweil], near Marial Bai (in North Bahr El Ghazal). I was abducted about five years ago and spent about four years working for a man called Adam Mohamed. I am about 15 now, and was about nine or ten when taken.


65. At the time of my abduction I was living in Akwat Ajok village in Southern Gogrial, near Wau. I had just started school and was in my first year. My father had died as a result of illness, and my mother had recently been injured (by an anti-personnel mine) and had part of her leg amputated. As a result, I was out of school with my two brothers and three sisters. I went to the market in Wau and met some Arabs there. Four of them asked me to go with them, which I agreed to do. They were selling sheep. After a while I wanted to leave the Arabs, but they would not let me, and when I cried they said they would hit me.


71. Our family was captured about six years ago [i.e. about 1994] when we were already fleeing north and had crossed into the North into Kordofan. I was captured with my son, Akai, and my two daughters, this one called Abuk [present at the interview], who was about eight at the time, and a younger one, about two. We were taken by a tribe called Humr [ie, Misseriya Humr], who split the three of us up. The man who took me subsequently sold me on to some other nomads to look after cattle, for about 130 Sudanese Pounds. I had to look after their cows and spent about six years with them before I managed to escape to Makaringa village.


74. I am from Ajuang near Aweil. I am about 16 years old now. I used to look after cattle for my aunt. One day about two or three years ago some raiders came, about 30 of them on horses. They caught me near where I had been sitting with some boys under a tree. Six of us had our wrists tied and were put in a horse-drawn cart. One of the other boys was called Makuch. Later on the same day three women were captured as well. We all had to go with the horsemen, sometimes riding, sometimes walking, for about six days, until we got to Sidam village, where the nine of us were split up. A man called Al-Fadhl took me to his house in Ferdos (a village near Ad-Dha'ein) by horse. He had five relatives there. During the wet season I had to dig the ground, and in the dry season look after goats. I learnt to speak Arabic from the others. I slept in the house with the others, collected water from a deep well, which I carried on a donkey back to the household, but generally had to eat by myself.

U.N. Fails to Censure Sudan's Slavery

United Press International UPI, GENEVA, Switzerland, 21 April 2001

[accessed 26 December 2010]

The United Nations' top human rights body adopted a resolution Friday citing Sudan for violations of human rights, but the United States criticized the text for its failure to censure Sudan for slavery and attacks on religious freedom.

Anti-Slavery Sudan mission returns

Anti-Slavery International, 2 November 2000

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

There have been reports from Sudan that as many as 14,000 people originating in southern Sudan need to be reunited with their families. Many of these people were abducted from their homes and some are still being forced to work for others.

Slavery in the Sudan - A briefing by John Eibner

Middle East Forum briefing by John Eibner, Assistant to the International President of the Geneva-based Christian Solidarity International (CSI), November 7, 2000

[accessed 26 December 2010]

In Sudan today, more than 100,000 women and children are victims of chattel slavery. Once captured, they become the private property of individual masters, and have to endure endless hard work, poor nutrition, and sexual abuse. Torture is commonplace and severe beatings the norm when a slave displeases his or her master.

SLAVERY IN THE NAME OF JIHAD - One finds slavery and quasi-slavery practices around the world, yet what makes slavery unique in Sudan is that there has been was a revival of the practice in the mid-1980s. The institution was virtually extinct in the 1970s and slave raids were unknown, except in a few remote places. The revival began in 1983, when then-president Ja'far Numayri placed himself at the vanguard of the Islamic revolution in Africa.

Buying the freedom of slaves in Sudan

Cable News Network CNN, Bahr El Ghazal, Sudan, December 20, 1997

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

A global charity is fighting the internationally condemned slave trade in Sudan in its own way -- by buying the freedom of slaves and reuniting them, mostly boys and girls, with their families.

The U.N. Finds Slavery in the Sudan

David Littman, Representative of the World Federalist Movement to the United Nations Office in Geneva, Middle East Quarterly, September 1996, pp. 91-94

[accessed 26 December 2010]

INTRODUCTION BY DAVID LITTMAN - A military regime espousing a fundamentalist Islamic orientation came to power in the Sudan on June 30, 1989. Since 1992, the U.N. General Assembly and its Geneva-based Commission on Human Rights have regularly adopted resolutions condemning the Sudanese government for its many human-rights violations. Of particular concern are the accusations against the Sudanese authorities not just of extrajudicial killings and torture but also of slavery and forced conversions to Islam.

Dr. Ushari Mahmoud's "Al Daein Massacre-Slavery Sudan"

Human Rights Watch/Africa Watch, 'Sudan Suppression of Information', 8/30/90 Vol. 2, Iss. 28 Pg.25

[accessed 26 December 2010]

[accessed 28 September 2016]

DESCRIPTION OF INCIDENT - Dr. Ushari was detained shortly after the coup (June 30, 1989). In a letter to President Jimmy Carter, written from Shalla Prison in Daufur dated April 5, 1990, he wrote: 'I have been recently transferred to this prison after nine months of detention at Kobar prison in Khartoum. While I was detained at Kobar, specifically on March 18, I was visited by ex-Minister of Finance, Dr. Sayed Ali Zaki. He came to me with a specific message from the military authorities. The gist of the message was that I would be released if i retract in writing and deny the truth of what I had written about slavery in "Al Daein Massacre-Slavery in the Sudan." Otherwise, I would continue to be detained "indefinitely".

Concluding Observations Of The Committee On The Rights Of The Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 4 October 2002

[accessed 25 December 2010]

[61] The Committee welcomes the work of the Committee for the Eradication of Abduction of Women and Children. However, it remains concerned that the State party's legislation does not adequately prohibit slavery or sanction those engaged in it and that thousands of children have been abducted and enslaved in the context of the armed conflict as well as for commercial gain (i.e. sold as servants, agricultural laborers and concubines, or forcibly recruited as soldiers).

Human Rights Overview

Human Rights Watch

[accessed 26 December 2010]


Freedom House Country Report

2018 Edition

[accessed 6 May 2020]


Economic mismanagement by the government and the concentration of wealth in the hands of a military, religious, and business elite linked to the NCP have deprived ordinary Sudanese of economic opportunity and condemned them to poverty.

According to the U.S. Department of State, Sudan is failing to take adequate steps to eliminate the trafficking of persons and denies the existence of sex trafficking of women and children.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 11 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – There were no informed estimates on the extent of trafficking, either for jockeys or for sexual exploitation. There were credible reports that tribal leaders with government connections transported children to the Persian Gulf to be used as jockeys in camel races or as laborers. Despite the absence of a signed agreement with the government, UNICEF cooperated with the government to repatriate child camel jockeys and indicated that 16 children had been repatriated since May. More than 300 children were repatriated from the United Arab Emirates and Qatar through the combined efforts of governments and NGOs.

There were credible reports that intertribal abductions of women and children continued in the South. Victims frequently became part of the new tribal family, with most women marrying into the new tribe; however, some victims were used for labor or sexual purposes. As intertribal fighting in the South decreased, the number of abductions also appeared to decline. The government acknowledged that abductions occurred and that abductees were sometimes forced into domestic servitude and sexual exploitation. The CEAWC and its 22 joint tribal committees investigated abduction cases and sought to facilitate the safe return of victims. CEAWC did not pursue legal action against abductors. CEAWC reported that since 1999, 1,354 abductees were reunited with their families. Credible sources noted that some of the CEAWC-facilitated reunions were forced repatriations of persons over age 18 against the wishes of the abductees.

During the past 20 years, the LRA kidnapped more than 20 thousand Ugandan children, took them back to the southern part of the country, and forced them to become sex slaves, pack animals, or soldiers. Many of the victims were killed. The LRA also abducted citizens while raiding towns in the South. According to SPLM/A officials, on November 21, suspected LRA rebels abducted 11 people in Western Equatoria and were suspected of killing 5 civilians and abducting 25 persons near Maridi. The government permitted the Ugandan army access to the South to pursue the LRA. Although Ugandan military operations significantly reduced LRA numbers, the LRA continued to operate in the South and to hold child abductees; such LRA attacks restricted humanitarian activities.

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