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In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Description: Romania

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Romania in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

Romania experiences both freezing winters and scorching summers, making it a land of diverse weather extremes. Indeed, deadly heatwaves can occur such as in 2012 when temperatures soared to 42°C.  adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Romania

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 17 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 8 January 2021]

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address widespread poverty; corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment

GDP - per capita (PPP): $24,600 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 28.3%

industry: 28.9%

services: 42.8% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22.4% (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 19 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 100% of population

Physicians density: 2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 84.3% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Romania

[accessed 2 March 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Strategies To Combat Poverty In Romania

~ 10 Facts About Hunger In Romania

~ Ending Homelessness In Romania

~ 5 Facts About Healthcare In Romania

~ The Plan To Reduce Poverty In Romania

~ 6 Facts About Girls’ Education In Romania

~ 8 Facts About Poverty Among The Roma Population In Romania

As Romania votes, millions still live in poverty

Cristian Stefanescu, Deutsche Welle (DW), 5 December 2020

[accessed 6 December 2020]

Roughly 6 million Romanians — about a third of all citizens who still reside in the country — live under the constant threat of poverty and social exclusion. A full 10% of Romania's children go to bed hungry each night, and a quarter of the country's citizens still use outdoor toilets.

Steve and his family, who live in the capital, Bucharest, have an indoor bathroom but no running water. Electricity comes from the next-door neighbor.

Steve has never had an official job. "I worked for cash on construction sites, off the books. I was a roofer, a painter, whatever they needed. I made about 120 leu (€25/$30) a day, which I took home to buy what we needed to survive the day. When there's no work, we live from what we can find on the street. We collect paper, bottles, anything."

The World Bank in Romania

[accessed 21 April 2021]

Romania’s priorities include investments in infrastructure, health care, education, job creation, and small and medium enterprise development. The country's economic growth has been one of the highest in the EU since 2010.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 2 March 2021]

The basic organization of economic management in Romania was highly centralized, like its original Soviet model, with few of the modifications introduced elsewhere in Eastern Europe. During the late 1970s and in the 1980s, the continued emphasis on industrial expansion and consequent neglect of agriculture led to food shortages and rationing.

In addition, two extremely harsh winters (1985 and 1987) resulted in widespread power shortages and loss of production.

The transition to a market economy also proved extremely painful. By 1992, grain production was only two-thirds of the 1989 level, GDP had fallen by 30%, industrial production had fallen 47% and inflation had reached 300%.

Unemployment, virtually non-existent under the Communist system, has persistently stayed in the range of 9% to 11% since, averaging 10.6% 1999 to 2002.

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