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Libyan Arab Jamahiriya


In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Description: Description: Libya

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Libya in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

In 2023, Africa experienced a series of deadly extreme weather events. In September, torrential rains triggered catastrophic flooding in Libya. This “medicane” (Mediterranean cyclone) resulted in the loss of more than 11,300 lives. – adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Libya

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 1 January 2021]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 6 January 2021]

The country suffers from widespread power outages, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing have all declined since 2011. Oil production in 2017 reached a five-year high, driving GDP growth, with daily average production rising to 879,000 barrels per day. However, oil production levels remain below the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $9,600 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 17%

industry: 23%

services: 59% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:

    note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line

Maternal mortality rate: 72 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 11.5 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.7 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 98.5% of population

Physicians density: 2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 100% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 98.5% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Libya

[accessed 16 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Ongoing Flooding In Libya Requires Aid

~ The Process Of Reducing Hunger In Libya

~ Examining And Reducing Poverty In Libya

~ 10 Facts About Sanitation In Libya

~ The Impact Of Foreign Aid On Healthcare In Libya

~ Homelessness In Libya: How War Leads To Displacement

~ Resolving The Water Crisis In Libya

How to stop the slave trade in Libya and beyond’

Maurice Middleberg, CNN, 5 January 2021

[accessed 16 February 2021]

The men who ended up being captured and sold in Libya were migrating because the conditions in their home communities are so desperate that risky behaviors seem warranted.

Punishing the slave traders and repatriating the victims, while needed, will not change the objective reality that drives migration. Moreover, the families, friends and neighbors in those communities are in a similar situation. That’s why it’s important to think of slavery as an ill befalling vulnerable communities, rather than individuals.

Slavery stems from vulnerability. Slave traders and slaveholders most often target the hamlets, villages and neighborhoods that are impoverished, marginalized and stigmatized.

The World Bank in Libya

[accessed 21 April 2021]

The World Bank is committed to supporting Libya with technical assistance and analytical services, as well as trust fund and grant financing, but the resumption of armed hostilities has placed its program to Libya on hold.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 1 January 2021]

Until the late 1950s, about 80% of the population was engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry; in 1999, however, only 18% of the labor force was engaged in agricultural pursuits. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing represented only 5% of GDP in 1999. A massive water pipeline project, called the Great Manmade River (GMR) project was initiated in 1984, and was expected to take 25 years to complete. The GMR is built to carry water in a 267-mile-long pipeline from 225 underground wells to an 880,000 gallon reservoir. This scheme envisaged providing irrigation large areas devoted to cereal cultivation. The government believed that this project would help Libya achieve self-sufficiency in grain.

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