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In the early years of the 21st Century



Description: Description: Jamaica

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Jamaica in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

Jamaica is susceptible to devastating hurricanes that can leave behind significant damage. These storms often bring strong winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surges. Recently, heavy rainfall caused widespread flooding and landslides in Jamaica. While occasional showers from trade winds are normal, slow-moving troughs have brought unusually intense rainfall.

The pendulum swings from one extreme to another, as Jamaica also faces severe droughts. Between 2014 and 2015, the country experienced one of the worst drought seasons in recent history. This had a devastating impact on the Jamaican economy, especially rural livelihoods. Agricultural production declined by 30 percent, resulting in significant losses. – adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Jamaica

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 31 December 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 5 January 2021]

Economic growth reached 1.6% in 2016, but declined to 0.9% in 2017 after intense rainfall, demonstrating the vulnerability of the economy to weather-related events. The HOLNESS administration therefore faces the difficult prospect of maintaining fiscal discipline to reduce the debt load while simultaneously implementing growth inducing policies and attacking a serious crime problem. High unemployment exacerbates the crime problem, including gang violence fueled by advanced fee fraud (lottery scamming) and the drug trade

GDP - per capita (PPP): $9,200 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 16.1%

industry: 16%

services: 67.9% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 17.1% (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 80 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.2 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 96% of population

Physicians density: 1.31 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 99% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 98.2% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Jamaica

[accessed 8 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Health Barriers Faced By The Elderly In Jamaica

~ 5 Facts About Child Poverty In Jamaica

~ Obesity And Malnutrition In Jamaica: Causes And Potential Solutions

~ 6 Facts About Homelessness In Jamaica

~ Improving Healthcare In Jamaica

The World Bank in Jamaica

[accessed 22 April 2021]

As its neighbors across the Caribbean, Jamaica is vulnerable to extreme weather events and climate change. Over the last 30 years, Jamaica suffered high debt and low growth. As the country continues implementing an ambitious program of economic reforms, Jamaica’s economy has begun to revive.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 8 February 2021]

The structure of the Jamaican economy has undergone extensive changes since 1945, when it was primarily dependent on tropical agricultural products such as sugar, bananas, coffee and cocoa. The island has since become of the world's largest producers of bauxite, though the industry suffered severely in the 1980s from high local costs and low world prices. It has also developed into a major tourist center for North Americans. Since 1983, tourism has been Jamaica's primary foreign exchange earner.

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