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In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Description: Ghana

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Ghana in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

Rising Sea Levels and Coastal Erosion: Ghana’s coastal region faces erosion due to rising sea levels and increased temperatures. Families in these areas may be displaced, losing their homes and land.

Vulnerability to Disasters: With a significant population dependent on agriculture, localized disasters have cumulative impacts on rural livelihoods over time. Ghana is particularly vulnerable to droughts, coastal erosion, floods, and landslides.

Impact on Human Security and Economy: Rising global temperatures are already driving weather extremes in Ghana. Communities in West Africa, including Ghana, are disproportionately affected by the climate crisis, despite contributing minimally to greenhouse gas emissions. – Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Ghana

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 29 December 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 5 January 2021]

Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is endowed with natural resources. Ghana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,700 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 44.7%

industry: 14.4%

services: 40.9% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.9% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line: 24.2% (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 308 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.2 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 89.9% of population

Physicians density: 0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 68.7% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 79.3% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Ghana

[accessed 3 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Ending Child Labor In Cocoa Production

~ The Promising Path Towards Women’s Rights In Ghana

~ Efforts To Eradicate Poverty In Ghana

~ New Ghanian Research And Training Center Aids African Supply Chains

~ 3 Reasons The Maternal Mortality Rate In Ghana Has Decreased

~ Bitland: Property Rights For The World’s Poor

~ 4 Facts About Distance Learning In Ghana

U.S. Ambassador Launches $19 Million activity to boost Agriculture Finance in Ghana

Modern Ghana, Accra, 6 May 2021

[accessed 7 May 2021]

The U.S. Global Food Security Strategy for Ghana (GFSS) is a five-year, interagency effort that aims to increase agricultural productivity, improve nutrition, and raise household incomes for millions of Ghana’s agricultural workers. Under the GFSS, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is committing $19 million to support the initial activity, known as Feed the Future Ghana “Mobilizing Finance in Agriculture” (MFA).

The MFA activity, which will run for four years, seeks to increase access to agricultural finance in select staple and commodity value chains such as maize, groundnuts, shea, soy, mango, cashew, and other high-value export commodities. The initiative will focus on facilitating transactions among buyers and sellers of the commodity crops and promoting exports.

The MFA activity will mobilize investment for Ghana’s agricultural sector to become an engine of sustainable growth, self-reliance, and shared prosperity. It will work to connect financial institutions, business advisory service providers, and agricultural enterprises, providing access to strategic partnerships, technical support, and smart incentives to help financing flow to where it is most needed and help more Ghanaians thrive.

The Continued Deforestation in Northern Ghana: A call for Action from Leadership

Fidelis Awonodomo Da-uri, ModernGhana, 27 April 2021

[accessed 27 April 2021]

Rural households in northern Ghana have a lot of alternative ways of meeting their household food needs during the lean season. During this period, households who run out of food rely on fruits, vegetables and income from the sale of such fruits and vegetables for their survival.

Despite the huge benefits that trees such as the shea tree offered the people, there has been a growing commercial charcoal production in northern Ghana in the past few years than ever before in this has left many areas fast developing into a desert!

The shea tree which provides both fruits and income to many vulnerable homes had become the main target besides rosewood as it charcoals has high demand in the market.

The mass cutting down of trees for charcoal production together with rosewood logging, bush burning, and other environmentally unhealthy practices is not only increasing climate change but continued food insecurity, poverty, hunger and diseases in the area.

The World Bank in Ghana

[accessed 19 April 2021]

The World Bank Group aims to help Ghana sustain economic growth, surpass the goal of halving poverty by 2015, and maintain its middle income status.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 3 February 2021]

Prior to 1990, the economy was dominated by over 300 state-owned enterprises. Although over 150 of these firms had been privatized by 1996, the overall pace of privatization has been slow. The economy is also hampered by poor roads and an inadequate telecommunications sector. Inflation has also been a problem peaking at 70% in 1995 before receding to about 21% by the end of 2001. Inflation has been fueled by undisciplined spending by parastatals and large public sector wage increases, which have added substantially to the government's budget deficit.

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