Torture in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
Human Trafficking in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
Street Children in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
Child Prostitution in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
 

Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Serbia, Montenegro & Kosovo

In the early years of the 21st Century

gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Serbia-Montenegro.htm

Republic of Serbia

Milosevic-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990.

Belgrade has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, including telecommunications and small- and medium-size firms. It has made halting progress towards EU membership despite signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization. Unemployment and the large current account deficit remain ongoing political and economic problems.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Description: Description: Serbia

 

 

Republic of Montenegro

The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis is likely to have a significant negative impact on the economy.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Description: Description: Montenegro

 

Republic of Kosovo

Kosovo's citizens are the poorest in Europe with an average annual per capita income of only $2,300. Unemployment, around 40% of the population, is a significant problem that encourages outward migration and black market activity. Most of Kosovo's population lives in rural towns outside of the capital, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and lack of technical expertise.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Description: Description: Kosovo

Serbia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and girls trafficked internationally and within the country for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor … Children, mostly Roma, continued to be trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation, forced marriage, or forced street begging. The majority of identified victims in 2008 were Serbian women and girls trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation; over half were children. There was an increase in cases of trafficking for forced labor in 2008. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2009  [full country report]

Montenegro is primarily a transit country for the trafficking of women and girls from Ukraine, Moldova, Serbia, Albania, and Kosovo to Western Europe for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. There have been reported cases of forced labor in the construction industry. There is anecdotal evidence that foreign children, mainly Roma, are also trafficked through Montenegro for the purpose of forced begging. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2009  [full country report]

Kosovo is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked across national borders for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. Kosovo women and children are also trafficked within Kosovo for the same purpose. NGOs reported that child trafficking, particularly from Roma communities, for the purpose of forced begging, was an increasing problem. Most foreign victims are young women from Eastern Europe subjected to forced prostitution. Kosovo victims are also trafficked to countries throughout Europe including Macedonia, Italy, and Albania. Kosovo residents, including three children, made up the majority of identified trafficking victims in 2008. Police report that internal trafficking involving Kosovo Serbs may also occur in north Kosovo, a Serb-majority region that presents particular security challenges. - U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June, 2009  [full report]

 

CAUTION:  The following links have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.

*** FEATURED ARTICLES ***

Shameful Investigation Into Sex-Trafficking Case

Amnesty International, Index Number: EUR 70/001/2005, Date Published: 1 February 2005

www.amnesty.nl/nieuwsportaal/pers/shameful-investigation-sex-trafficking-case

[accessed 26 February 2015]

www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur70/001/2005/en/

[accessed 16 June 2017]

The government of Montenegro must re-open as a matter of priority a high-profile sex-trafficking case in which Montenegrin politicians, judges, police and civil servants are implicated, Amnesty International said in a letter to the Minister of the Interior of Montenegro. The Moldovan woman in the centre of the case alleges that Montenegrin politicians, judges, police and civil servants had tortured and raped her and other East European women who like her had been trafficked and held as sex-slaves.

A Legal Analysis of Trafficking in Persons Cases in Kosovo [PDF]

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, The Department Of Human Rights, Decentralization, And Communities, Legal System Monitoring Section, October 2007

www.osce.org/kosovo/28415

[accessed 28 August 2011]

[page 3] EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - The problem of trafficking in human beings (“trafficking”) continues to be a major human rights concern in Kosovo.

In cases monitored by the OSCE, victims did not receive the basic guarantees provided by law, and frequently faced prosecution or the threat of prosecution. Witness protection measures were rarely used, despite the regular intimidation of victims. Moreover, judges and prosecutors often failed to understand the legal definition of the crime of trafficking, or permit perpetrators to go unpunished.  In summary, the OSCE observed that authorities involved in the investigation and prosecution of alleged traffickers fail to adopt a victim-centred approach, or to ensure that perpetrators face justice.

 

*** ARCHIVES ***

KPS rescues 2 human trafficking victims

BETA News Agency, PRIŠTINA, 26 January 2008

www.b92.net/eng/news/crimes-article.php?yyyy=2008&mm=01&dd=26&nav_id=47248

[accessed 21 December 2010]

“Thanks to cooperation from citizens, members of the anti-human trafficking unit discovered two females from Kosovo in a hotel basement on Friday, that had been locked up there against their will,” announced the Peć Regional Police.

A preliminary investigation has revealed that the two girls, who are of Albanian ethnicity, were locked up there for over two months.

A Legal Analysis of Trafficking in Persons Cases in Kosovo [PDF]

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, The Department Of Human Rights, Decentralization, And Communities, Legal System Monitoring Section, October 2007

www.osce.org/kosovo/28415

[accessed 28 August 2011]

[page 3] EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - The problem of trafficking in human beings (“trafficking”) continues to be a major human rights concern in Kosovo.

In cases monitored by the OSCE, victims did not receive the basic guarantees provided by law, and frequently faced prosecution or the threat of prosecution. Witness protection measures were rarely used, despite the regular intimidation of victims. Moreover, judges and prosecutors often failed to understand the legal definition of the crime of trafficking, or permit perpetrators to go unpunished.  In summary, the OSCE observed that authorities involved in the investigation and prosecution of alleged traffickers fail to adopt a victim-centred approach, or to ensure that perpetrators face justice.

Amnesty International on human rights in Serbia and Kosovo

Amnesty International, 15 February 2007

www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/amnesty-international-human-rights-serbia-kosovo/article-161739

[accessed 21 December 2010]

beta.euractiv.com/section/central-europe/interview/amnesty-international-on-human-rights-in-serbia-and-kosovo/

[accessed 28 September 2016]

WHAT ACTION WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE FROM THE EU’S SIDE TO TACKLE HUMAN-RIGHTS ISSUES THAT ALSO CONCERN THE UNION ITSELF, SUCH AS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?

With respect to trafficking, we urge the EU to assist the Kosovo authorities in implementing the Kosovo Action Plan on Trafficking, to ensure the protection of the rights of trafficked persons, including to assistance and other forms of support, in compliance with the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.

Over 120.000 human trafficking victims pass via Balkan a year

MakFaxOnline, Belgrade 22 December 2006

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

More than 120.000 women and children, victims of human trafficking, pass through the Balkan region per year before heading to the EU member-countries, Serbian government said.  "The number of trafficked children rose from 10 to 56 percent, and lately up to 60 percent of identified victims of human trafficking are Serbian citizens," said Serbian Minister of Labor, Employment & Social Welfare Slobodan Lalovic.

Human trafficking recovery center opens in Belgrade

B92 News, 16 September 2006

www.b92.net/eng/news/society.php?yyyy=2006&mm=09&dd=16&nav_id=36789

[accessed 24 June 2013]

The center's program was developed according to the demands and experiences of victims, in order to offer help to abused women and enable them to return to their normal lives and reintegrate into society.

The route to hell

Louisa Waugh, The Scotsman, 22 August 2006

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

Reports of women and girls being trafficked into Kosovo began to emerge within months of the United Nations mission in Kosovo and the NATO peacekeepers arriving in July 1999. While writing this book I travelled to Kosovo, and found it an intimidating place to research the subject of trafficking. People were guarded with information, and it is the only place I have ever been threatened by a police officer for asking questions about human trafficking - he said that he could have me detained if he wanted to.

Human trafficking in Vojvodina

BETA News Agency, 7 August 2006

www.b92.net/eng/news/society.php?yyyy=2006&mm=08&dd=07&nav_id=36024

[accessed 8 February 2016]

The victims are most commonly women from poor families who were subjected to violence within their families. Their documents are taken away and many times they are threatened to be killed or thrown into the Danube River where no one will find them.

Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced prostitution in Kosovo - Summary [DOC]

Amnesty International, 06/05/2004

www.amnesty.eu/static/documents/Kosovo_summary.doc

[accessed 21 December 2010]

In this report, Amnesty International attempts to add to the growing understanding of trafficking as an abuse of human rights, not least the right to physical and mental integrity, and of the right to life, liberty and security of the person.

The report documents abuses perpetrated against women and girls in Kosovo, including abduction, deprivation of liberty and denial of freedom of movement, often combined with other restrictions, including the withdrawal of travel or identity documents. The organization also finds that women and girls have been subjected to torture and ill-treatment, including psychological threats, beatings and rape.

Co-operation to Stop Sex Traffic

Radio Sweden, 31 August 2005

sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?ProgramID=2054&format=1&artikel=683238

[accessed 21 December 2010]

The Swedish police have begun working with their counterparts in Kosovo to stop a gang responsible for sex trafficking.  The co-operation follows the case of a 17-year-old girl kidnapped from Kosovo and brought to Sweden and forced into prostitution.

Albanians Given 10 To 12 Years In Jail For Human Trafficking

ONASA News Agency & Agence France-Presse AFP, PRISTINA, 22 July 2005

kosovonewsandviews.blogspot.com/2005/07/albanians-given-10-to-12-years-in-jail.html

[accessed 21 December 2010]

Singh said the investigation found out that two female victims from Albania, one of them 16 years old, "had been lured to Kosovo with false promises of legitimate work, only to find that their supposed employers were in fact intending to force them into prostitution".

13 Arrests in 10 Days on Human Trafficking Charges

OneWorldSee, 03/03/2005

www.oneworldsee.org/sq/node/7214

[accessed 21 December 2010]

UNMIK Police Trafficking of Human Beings Section (THBS) has arrested 13 persons on Human Trafficking charges in the past ten days. Based on checks, surveillance and intelligence-led operations, the investigative teams were able to rescue four female victims, one in Prishtinë/Pristina, two in Gjilan/Gnjilane and one in Prizren Region and take into custody these 13 persons involved in the trafficking.

In one case, after being forced into prostitution, the rescued victim had also been sold for marriage: 4 suspects involved in the case were arrested. In another case, the victim had been forced into prostitution by her boyfriend who brutally abused her.

Human Trafficking Trial in Bijelo Polje

OneWorldSee, 30/03/2005

oneworldsee.org/node/7650

[accessed 21 December 2010]

The prosecution, represented by the Deputy State Prosecutor Lepa Medenica, accused Licina of holding forcibly Milica Novakovic from Pozega at his “Montenegro” Bar in Rozaje, and forced her into prostitution. Milica Novakovic was brought to Licina by Petrovic and Cubrakovic, under the false pretext that she would be employed as a waitress.

Balkans Urged To Curb Trafficking

Imogen Foulkes, BBC News, Geneva, 31 March 2005

news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4397497.stm

[accessed 21 December 2010]

Countries in South-East Europe are failing to take effective measures against people trafficking, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) says.  A UNICEF report says that while countries in the region have strict anti-trafficking laws they do not tackle the root causes of the problem.

Initiative to Help Fight Human Trafficking in Three SEE Countries

Robert Herschbach for Southeast European Times – 05/04/05

www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2005/04/05/feature-03?print=yes

[accessed 21 December 2010]

Bulgaria, Croatia and Serbia-Montenegro are located in a pivotal zone between poorer countries to the east and the affluent nations of the EU, and function as transit points.  Anti-trafficking efforts in Serbia have run into continuing problems with inadequate witness protection and police corruption, and penalties remain light, the State Department found.  Montenegro, meanwhile, was the site of a major scandal in 2004 involving allegations of high-level complicity in the sex trade.

Shameful Investigation Into Sex-Trafficking Case

Amnesty International, Index Number: EUR 70/001/2005, Date Published: 1 February 2005

www.amnesty.nl/nieuwsportaal/pers/shameful-investigation-sex-trafficking-case

[accessed 26 February 2015]

www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur70/001/2005/en/

[accessed 16 June 2017]

The government of Montenegro must re-open as a matter of priority a high-profile sex-trafficking case in which Montenegrin politicians, judges, police and civil servants are implicated, Amnesty International said in a letter to the Minister of the Interior of Montenegro. The Moldovan woman in the centre of the case alleges that Montenegrin politicians, judges, police and civil servants had tortured and raped her and other East European women who like her had been trafficked and held as sex-slaves.

For Sale Age 3

Graham Johnson, 25 January 2004

www.rense.com/general68/whatthen.htm

[accessed 21 December 2010]

[scroll down]

The children, some as young as three, are snatched from their parents and sold for as little as £300. Some are feared to have been taken as child sex slaves. Others are put up for illegal adoptions by couples, including Britons, desperate to start a family.  These three youngsters all live at a former United Nations refugee camp in Montenegro, part of the old Yugoslavia.

Government officials in sex trafficking ring arrested

Vesna Peric Zimonjic, London Independent, 12/06/2002

www.prisonplanet.com/government_officials_in_sex_trafficking_ring_arrested.html

[accessed 21 December 2010]

The arrests are only a small part of the scandal, according to sources in the Montenegrin capital, Podgorica. It is an open secret in the Balkans that people-trafficking rings run through Montenegro to Bosnia and Kosovo, with profits from the dirty trade reaching millions of euros.

The sex-slave routes lead to Italy and Britain, where at least 1,400 women, mainly from eastern Europe, are tricked into prostitution each year. The trade is highly lucrative for the men who "own" them; in London, women can bring in about £100,000 a year for their pimps.

Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe [PDF]

Barbara Limanowska, Stability Pact Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings, UNICEF, June 2002

www.iom.md/materials/1_traff_human_beings_se.pdf

[accessed 29 August 2014]

www.refworld.org/docid/49997af71a.html

[accessed 16 June 2017]

[page 78]  1.2. TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN - Practically no information exists on the trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children.  There are some reports that Roma girls and children from FRY are sold to Italy for the sex industry and for begging.

Freedom House Country Report - Serbia - Political Rights: 3   Civil Liberties: 2   Status: Free

2009 Edition

www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2009/serbia

[accessed 27 June 2012]

Freedom House Country Report - Montenegro - Political Rights: 3   Civil Liberties: 3   Status: Partly Free

2009 Edition

www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2009/montenegro

[accessed 27 June 2012]

Freedom House Country Report - Kosovo - Political Rights: 6   Civil Liberties: 5   Status: Not Free

2009 Edition

www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2009/kosovo

[accessed 27 June 2012]

Human Rights Overview

Human Rights Watch

www.hrw.org/europecentral-asia/serbia

[accessed 21 December 2010]

Stop Violence Against Women – Country Page

Advocates for Human Rights, April 12, 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here] 

[accessed 11 September 2011]

U.S. Library of Congress - Country Study

Library of Congress Call Number DR1214 .Y83 1992

www.loc.gov/collections/country-studies/?q=DR1214+.Y83+

[accessed 21 December 2010]

About 30 Cases of People Traffkicking Reported in Serbia since April 2003

Tanjug News Agency, BELGRADE, August 3, 2004

www.msp.rs/Bilteni/Engleski/b040804_e.html#N2

[accessed 21 December 2010]

The campaign against the trafficking of children was initiated six month ago by non-governmental organization Beosupport (Belgrade support to exploited children and young people), and the inter-governmental International Organization for Migrations. According to research carried out in Serbia by Beosupport among young people between the ages 16 and 26, the problem of people trafficking is generally defined as voluntary prostitution, while illegal labor and begging are rarely mentioned.

"So does it mean that we have the rights?" Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced ... [DOC]

Amnesty International, 6 May 2004

www.amnesty.eu/static/documents/Kosovo_summary.doc

[accessed 25 April 2012]

Since the deployment in July 1999 of an international peacekeeping force (KFOR) and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) civilian administration, Kosovo(6) has become a major destination country for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. Women are trafficked into Kosovo predominantly from Moldova, Bulgaria and Ukraine, the majority of them via Serbia. At the same time, increasing numbers of local women and girls are being internally trafficked, and trafficked out of Kosovo.

Facts and figures on trafficking of women and girls for forced prostitution in Kosovo

Amnesty International, Media Briefing, 6 May 2004

archive.wn.com/2004/05/08/1400/p/80/17f1bb9e9e65f5.html

[accessed 8 February 2016]

In 2002, it was reported that 36 percent of the trafficked women and girls in Kosovo were denied any medical care, while only ten percent were provided with regular health care; the majority of trafficked women were forced to have unprotected sex.  To date, no trafficked women or girls have obtained reparations for the physical, emotional and psychological damage they have suffered as a result of these abuses of their human rights.

UN Kosovo police arrested for sex trafficking

Ekrem Krasniqi in Brussels, ISN Security Watch, 01/09/05

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here] 

[accessed 11 September 2011]

In the meantime, Amnesty International (AI) says the presence of international peacekeepers in Kosovo has been fuelling the sexual exploitation of women and encouraging trafficking.  The human rights group claims that UN and NATO troops in the region are using the trafficked women and girls for sex, and that some have been involved in trafficking itself.  Girls as young as 11 from Eastern European countries are being sold into sex slavery, according to Amnesty International.

The group’s 2004 yearly report - based on interviews with women and girls who have been trafficked from countries such as Moldova, Bulgaria, and Ukraine to service Kosovo’s sex industry - says that sex victims are moved illegally across borders and sold in “trading houses” where they are sometimes drugged and “broken in” before being sold from one trafficker to another for prices ranging from €50 to €3,500.

Montenegro: Little political will to curb trafficking and corruption

Civilitas Research, 09 January 2003

www.civilitasresearch.org/publications/view_article.cfm?article_id=26

[access date unavailable]

However, the main difficulty in dealing with the issue is the involvement of many senior officials who are supposed to curtail illegal activities in the first place. This high level involvement often serves to deter those officials who would otherwise be willing to take a stronger stand.

Sex Slavery Scandal Rattles Montenegro

Associated Press AP,  Podgorica, July 8 2003

www.prisonplanet.com/070803sexrings.html

[accessed 21 December 2010]

Svetlana has a secret -- one so dark and lurid, it has scandalized this usually unflappable corner of the Balkans.  It's not the story of how she ended up in sexual slavery after being lured to Montenegro with the promise of a decent job.  Nor is it the agonizing tale of how she was locked up in a brothel for three years and toyed with by clients who abused her so savagely they broke bones and scarred her genitals with cigarette burns.  Svetlana's unsettling secret is the identities of those clients -- a damning account she gave police that implicated prominent Montenegrin officials in the sex trade.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61673.htm

[accessed 21 December 2010]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – Underage girls were among those trafficked for sexual exploitation. In November authorities rescued a 14-year-old girl at the Slovenian border from an international trafficking ring attempting to take her to the Netherlands for work and sexual exploitation. Her family in Prokuplje had sold her for $3,600 (3 thousand euros); the parents stated they thought their daughter would be staying with an aunt and attending school in the Netherlands. Two Croatians and two citizens of the Netherlands were arrested for trafficking the girl.

While Serbia was not traditionally a major source for trafficked women, poor economic conditions have increased women's vulnerability to traffickers, particularly in the Romani community. Trafficking of children by Roma for use in begging or theft rings was a problem.

Traffickers recruited victims through enticements including advertisements for escorts, marriage offers, and offers of employment. Women often went to work as prostitutes knowingly and only later became trafficking victims. In many cases international organized crime networks recruited, transported, sold, and controlled victims. The main points in Serbia for holding and transferring trafficked women were the Belgrade suburbs and Pancevo.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery – Serbia-Montenegro", http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Serbia-Montenegro.htm, [accessed <date>]

 

 

Torture in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
Human Trafficking in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
Street Children in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]
Child Prostitution in  [Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo]  [other countries]