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Human Trafficking
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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025                      

Republic of North Macedonia

Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains high at nearly 35%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20% of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Macedonia.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving.  Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving.  Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity.  There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Prostitution Rampage Through Macedonia: Teenagers Bought, Raped, Sold

Reality Macedonia, June 24, 2003

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 15 September 2011]

Bitola police arrested a gang of seven who used to buy and sell juveniles, forcing them to offer sex services for money.

The police discovered the group after one of the abused girls reported that she's been a victim of human trafficking. According the preliminary reports, the girl R.A. was forced twice into whoring with Greek citizens. In March this year, the suspects M.A. and A.N. sold the girl to Sh.K. from Kichevo for 150 Euros. He and his unwed wife forced the girl to serve them in their bar. The bosses sold the girl to the Ohrid resident D.B. for 100 Euros June 6, 2003. He also forced the girl into prostitution in his bar "Persa."

The same day, the accused Sh.K. bought the 14-year old girl A.M. (native of Prilep) from some man from Bitola, paying 50 Euros. Sh.K. forced the girl to prostitute herself. Several days afterward, D.B. bought the girl A.N., also to force her to work as a servant and prostitute. Since she refused the orders of her owners, she endured repeated raping between June 14 and June 17, 2003.


*** ARCHIVES ***

Human Rights Reports » 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 2 September 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - The law prohibits all forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children, including the offer, sale, or procurement of children for prostitution. The penalty for the commercial sexual exploitation of children is 10 to 15 years in prison. The law prohibits child pornography and provides penalties of five to 15 years in prison for violations. Authorities enforced the law. The minimum age for consensual sex is 16. The country follows the Convention on the Rights of the Child, under which any person under the age of 18 is considered a child.

Authorities considered child commercial sexual exploitation a problem but did not know its extent. The country had an online registry, searchable by name and address, of convicted child traffickers and sex offenders that listed photographs, conviction records, and residential addresses. Offenders could ask authorities to remove them from the register 10 years after they completed their sentence, provided they did not commit a new offense. According to the registry, during the year there were six pedophiles serving prison sentences of two to 20 years.

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2019

[accessed 3 September 2020]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

[page 901]

The majority of victims of child trafficking in North Macedonia are girls, between the ages of 12 to 18, who have been trafficked domestically for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs. (1,2,8,13,17) Roma girls, especially, are also trafficked for forced marriages in which they are subject to sexual and labor exploitation. (1,2,8,13,14,18)Unaccompanied children from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and other states continued to transit through the country, either legally or illegally, and were vulnerable to trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. (8,12,19,20)

Five Years After Stockholm [PDF]

ECPAT: Fifth Report on implementation of the Agenda for Action

ECPAT International, November 2001

[accessed 13 September 2011]

[B] COUNTRY UPDATES – FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA – According to local NGOs, an increasing number of children are being prostituted by soldiers of the Kosovo Peace Keeping Force (KPFOR). This is resulting in teenage pregnancies and HIV/AIDS.

Girl, 15, Sold to Work as Slave In the Brothels of London

Dominic Kennedy, Reality Macedonia, July 06, 2002

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 15 September 2011]

A sex slave aged 15 can be bought for as little as £1,300 it emerged, after a Romanian girl who had been prostituted across Europe escaped her Albanian captors while working in a British sauna.  Her “owner” had pocketed up to £500 a day as he made her work in brothels for up to 20 hours at a time, seven days a week, and beat her if she resisted.

Natasha, age 15, came to the notice of traffickers and soon she was forced to become a “dancing girl” in a nightclub in the south of Macedonia, where, for six months, her duties included stripping and having sex with clients.  She escaped this club when she was purchased, without her knowledge, by Jorgi, an Albanian pimp, for 4,000 German marks (£1,300).

He forced her to telephone saunas and massage parlours, finding the numbers from the back pages of the magazine What’s On In London. He drove her to and from work, pocketing the cash that she was paid.  “I was working morning, afternoon and evening. Sometimes I would get home at 7am and would have to start work again at 11am,” Natasha said.  “I hated all the men I was working for. But if you didn’t do what they were saying they would always get angry and hit you and swear at you.” After Jorgi hit her she would cover the bruising with make-up and go to work again. htcp

0wned by prem7pun!sher

Irina Gelevska, Reality Macedonia, Skopje, July 26, 2002

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 16 June 2011]

UNICEF's child protection officer Carry Nill says that the problem of child sex slavery in Macedonia worsened during the last two years. Between August and November 2001, Macedonian Police discovered 328 [trafficked] women in the raids in the night bars in the West and Northwest of the country. 12% of them are young girls aged 14 to 16. A Skopje shelter, run by IOM with the assistance from the police, accepted 6 girls under age of 18 during this year.

ECPAT:  CSEC Overview

[Last access date unavailable]

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) in Macedonia is a steadily growing phenomenon. The country serves as a sending, a receiving and transit country and has witnessed an increase in trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes over the past 2 years. In the space of only three months in 2001, 328 trafficking victims were rescued by Macedonian police, of which 12% were between the age of 14 and 16.




The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 19 February 2011]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Girls are involved in commercial sexual exploitation on the streets of Macedonia. Children are trafficked to Macedonia from Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, and UkraineMacedonia is also a transit country for trafficking to Greece, Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, and Western Europe.  CHILD LABOR LAWS AND ENFORCEMENT - The Criminal Code prohibits trafficking in children and punishes those convicted of such an offence with at least 8 years in prison.  Individuals who knowingly engage in sexual relations with a trafficked child are also subject to 8 years in prison.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 10 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS – There were four reported cases of trafficking involving girls during the year. There were reports that female minors were recruited by some massage parlor owners to perform sexual services for clients. In at least one case, authorities shut down a massage parlor operating in this way.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Child Prostitution - Macedonia",, [accessed <date>]