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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025              

Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan)

Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity.

The government and international financial institutions have been engaged in a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]


CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in the Kyrgyz Republic.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving.  Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving.  Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity.  There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

HELP for Victims

International Organization for Migration
3 12 61 24 56
Country code: 996-



VIII. Special Protection Measures [DOC]

Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC -- NGO Commentaries to the Initial Report of the Kyrgyz Republic on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, January 03, 2000

[accessed 12 June 2011]

[page 26]

C. CHILDREN SUFFERING EXPLOITATION (INCLUDING ISSUES OF PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RECOVERY AND SOCIAL REINTEGRATION) - Prostitution is a serious and growing social problem in the Kyrgyz Republic. A number of women of various ages are illegally engaged in this sex industry. Most of them are unemployed, arriving from small towns and villages. Many of prostitutes are underage, starting from 12 or 13 years. At least 20% of 2000 prostitutes working in Bishkek are teenagers (IRS-SCF). Although religious and national traditions prohibiting pre-marriage relationship are strong in the southern part of the country, there also prostitutes of 14 and 15 years is found there. Some businessmen in Osh mentioned a place where schoolgirls provide sexual services for 50 soms (a little more than $1).

There are young women and children, some as young as 11 or 12, traveling regularly in trains for great distance with different mail companions. They provide sexual services before being left at a terminus station. On arrival at the train’s destination point, the abandoned children become street children for a day or two until they find another traveling customer. (Peter Blackley, SCF)


*** ARCHIVES ***

ECPAT Country Monitoring Report [PDF]

Vykintas Lideikis, ECPAT International, 2012

[accessed 2 September 2020]

Desk review of existing information on the sexual exploitation of children (SEC) in Kyrgyzstan. The report looks at protection mechanisms, responses, preventive measures, child and youth participation in fighting SEC, and makes recommendations for action against SEC.

Human Rights Reports » 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 2 September 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - The criminal code prohibits the sale of children, child trafficking, child prostitution and child pornography, as well as other sexual crimes against children. The law criminalizes the sale of persons and forced prostitution and provides penalties for conviction of up to 15 years in prison if the victim is a child. The law also makes it a crime to involve someone in prostitution by violence or the threat of violence, blackmail, destroying or damaging property, or fraud.

The criminal code prohibits the distribution of child pornography and the possession of child pornography with the intent to distribute. The law does not specifically define child pornography, and the criminal code does not fully criminalize computer-related use, access to child pornography online, or simple possession of child pornography.

According to UNICEF, children under age 18 in Bishkek were involved in prostitution. Although precise figures were not known, police stated that typical cases of child prostitution involved young girls from rural areas who relocated to Bishkek for educational opportunities or to flee from an abusive family environment. Once in the capital, they entered the sex trade due to financial pressures. There were allegations of law enforcement officials’ complicity in human trafficking; police officers allegedly threatened, extorted, and raped child sex-trafficking victims. The government reportedly has not investigated allegations of government employees complicit in human trafficking offenses.

Under the criminal code, it is illegal for persons ages 18 and older to have sexual relations with someone under age 16.

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2019

[accessed 2 September 2020]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

[page 701]

Although the Kyrgyz Republic has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking and in agriculture, including cultivating cotton.

Reports suggest Kyrgyz police officers sexually exploit female trafficking victims, including some younger than age 18. Concerns persist about police misconduct, including allegations that police threaten and extort sex trafficking victims, including minors, and reports indicate that police accept bribes from alleged traffickers to drop cases. (4)

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1 October 2004

[accessed 17 February 2011]

[61] The Committee is concerned that the recommendations made upon consideration of the State party’s initial report with regard to the involvement of children in sexual exploitation have not been fully implemented. The Committee is also concerned about the health risks posed to children who are sexually exploited and/or trafficked.

Five Years After Stockholm [PDF]

ECPAT: Fifth Report on implementation of the Agenda for Action

ECPAT International, November 2001

[accessed 13 September 2011]

[B] COUNTRY UPDATES – KYRGYZ REPUBLIC – In the “New Generation” plan,  there are four paragraphs relating to sexual exploitation. The document says that measures should be reinforced against those who involve children in prostitution. Furthermore it stipulates the need to provide rehabilitation and education for victims of violence and the creation and financing of rehabilitation centers, as well as the creation of a system for registering children who suffer abuse.

Report by Special Rapporteur [DOC]

UN Economic and Social Council Commission on Human Rights, Fifty-ninth session, 6 January 2003$FILE/G0310090.doc

[accessed 12 June 2011]

[50] Sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography are criminal offences, and anyone over the age of 16 who involves children in these crimes incurs liability.  The Commission on Juveniles’ Affairs is responsible for young offenders in some cases, including where children are below the age of criminal responsibility, but they do not have a special mandate for cases of child prostitution, and judges, prosecutors and social workers who deal with children’s concerns do not receive specialized training.

[51] In 2001, the Kyrgyz Government launched “New Generation”, a National Plan of Action for Children’s Rights, and in April 2002 launched a National Program on the Elimination of Human Trafficking and Sale of People, aiming at the prevention of these violations, improvement of law-enforcement bodies and migration structures, and assistance and rehabilitation for victims to return to their countries.  The Plan for Children’s Rights does not include provisions related to sale of children, child prostitution or child pornography, and the National Program launched in 2002 does not include special provisions for children.  There is a lack of data as to the number of children involved in sale, trafficking, prostitution and pornography, and data about relevant prosecutions is not made available to civil society on the grounds of State secrecy.

National Consultation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

ECPAT International, Bishkek, 24 October 2005

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 12 June 2011]

Increasingly vulnerable children represent a potential source of income for various forms of individual and organized criminality that over the past few years have enormously increased their activities and turnover by exploiting young victims through prostitution; trafficking for sexual and other purposes; and child pornography.

ECPAT: Situational Analysis of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children [PDF]

ECPAT International, in collaboration with the Centre for the Study of Public Opinion “El Pikir”, Bishkek, 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 12 June 2011]

[7.2] SCOPE AND DYNAMICS OF CSEC - The percentage of prostituted children in Bishkek is estimated by the respondents quite realistically: 5-10%. Girls are more likely than boys to be involved in sexual exploitation. In spite of the fact that girls as young as 11 years old work, there is a greater demand for girls who are 14 years old and above. There is also a constant, though relatively small, demand for virgins.

Focus On Street Children In Bishkek

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks IRIN, Bishkek, 6 July 2001

[accessed 13 March 2015]

The fact is that many of the children on the street today are working to support their families, because their parents’ income no longer suffices.  Many work as porters, or sell newspapers, flowers or candy, or wash cars in the streets. There have also been incidences of child prostitution.

Country Overviews

Childhood Poverty Research and Policy Center

[accessed 12 June 2011]

KYRGYZSTAN - Growing poverty has also led to children working in a range of jobs, from working on family farms, to agricultural labor for others, domestic service, selling or working as porters at markets. Recent research estimate that approximately 24 per cent of children work either full or part time, similarly since transition there are now homeless or 'street' children in Kyrgyzstan's cities, and some reports of child prostitution and trafficking.

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) Report - Kyrgyzstan -  [PDF]

IHF Focus, Kyrgyzstan AR 2004, 6/9/2004

[accessed 12 June 2011]

[page 12]  RIGHTS OF THE CHILD - Thousands of children lived in the streets, supporting themselves from begging. Moreover, according to the newspaper Vecherniy Bishkek and other sources, some 200,000 children did not attend school. Instead, many were working in bazaars or as street vendors, while many survived on stealing. Child prostitution was widespread, with young girls being subjected to beating and group rapes. Law enforcement officials sometimes caught street children and ill-treated them in order to make them “confess” offenses they had not committed, in order to boost police detection rates of crimes.

Rights of the Child in Kyrgyzstan [PDF]

Ramazan Dyryldaev and Séverine Jacomy, The Kyrgyz Committee for Human Rights -- A report prepared for the Committee on the Rights of Child, Geneva, February 2004

[accessed 28 January 2016]

5c.  SEXUAL ABUSE, TRAFFICKING AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION - Indeed, child prostitution is thriving in Kyrgyzstan. Teenage girls engage or are forced into prostitution for socio-economic reasons. But in addition to sexual exploitation, they face all sorts of violence. It is not infrequent for clients or pimps to beat the girls and gang-rape them. The State party report estimates that 10% of people involved in prostitution are minors . According to other sources, in Bishkek 20% of 2000 prostitutes are teenagers.

A recent field investigation was carried out by IWPR, in four of the five Central Asian republics, on the phenomenon of child prostitution . The research confirmed that child prostitution is widespread in Kyrgyzstan, although hidden at first sight from foreigners, especially in big towns. Children involved in prostitution are to be found in private homes converted into brothels or in discreet clubs. The majority are aged 11-16, with boys involved too.

“IWPR heard reports of corruption in both the judiciary and the police. In addition, where law-enforcement agencies are doing their best to protect minors in the sex trade, they are often badly under-resourced. (…) Madina, who is now 16, agreed to be interviewed about her life as a prostitute in return for 350 soms. She described how her regular clients include police officers, and local officials who employ her when important visitors are in town. “I have accompanied the judge to picnics in the mountains several times,” said Madina. “My friend came with me - she was with the prosecutor - and some police officers came with us. They had their automatics with them and they even let me do some shooting.” Children from poor and abusive families are obviously the most vulnerable, including girls from rural areas that are directly recruited by pimps who promises great financial reward for temporary involvement. 




ECPAT Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial exploitation of children - KYRGYZSTAN [PDF]

ECPAT International, 2008

[accessed 12 June 2011]

The Centre for the Study of Public Opinion El Pikir - the lead agency of the ECPAT affiliate in Kyrgyzstan - has conducted a situational analysis on CSEC which indicates that child prostitution occurs particularly in Bishkek, Osh and in other big cities; cases of girls exploited in brothels and saunas were also identified in Jalal-Abad, a southern city. The majority of respondents in Osh considered CSEC to be widespread in the city, while some even considered it to be “an open phenomenon”. Pimps and brothel managers in Osh mentioned a high demand for very young girls, as well as for boys. The Oasis Foundation has also reported that boys aged between 12 and 16 are being exploited in prostitution. While girls as young as 11 can be found in prostitution, there is a great demand for those aged 14 and above, and a constant, though relatively small, demand for virgins. Some escort agencies seem to exploit very young girls, targeting a clientele of wealthy men who would not go to a ‘streetwalker’. The NGO Tais Plus reports that, especially in Bishkek, young girls in prostitution are mostly controlled by female pimps. Some of these pimps may be teenagers themselves. According to the Bishkek-based NGO Action in Support of Families, children are often recruited in rural communities by pimps or by friends.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 29 November 2010]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Children are reported to work as prostitutes in urban areas throughout the country. The Kyrgyz Republic is considered to be primarily a country of origin and transit for the trafficking of children. While the extent of the problem is unknown, there are reports of girls trafficked for prostitution to the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and South Korea. The IOM reported girls as young as 10 years old are trafficked abroad.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 9 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS A flourishing commercial sex industry exploited girls as young as age 10 from destitute mountain villages.

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