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Human Trafficking
Street Children


The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025                          

Republic of India

India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for more than half of India's output with less than one third of its labor force. Slightly more than half of the work force is in agriculture, leading the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to articulate a rural economic development program that includes creating basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance.

The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1997, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points.


Description: Description: Description: India

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in India.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving.  Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving.  Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity.  There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

HELP for Victims

International Organization for Migration
Country code: 91-


Toll Free 1098


Families of Bharatpur push their minor girls into prostitution

Indo-Asian News Service IANS, July 2, 2006

[accessed 24 May 2011]

The girls are mostly aged between 12 and 15, though some are as young as 10. They stand at the roadside along with their fathers and brothers who fix the 'price' for them.

“What can we do, we have to send our daughters into this profession as there are no alternative means of livelihood.”

Arabian Sex Tourism

Daniel Pipes, Front Page Magazine, October 7, 2005

[accessed 24 May 2011]

Sunita Krishnan, head of an anti human-trafficking organization, Prajwala, makes the only too-obvious point that girl children are not valued. "If a girl child is sold or her life ruined, it is not a national loss, that's why this is a non-issue, both for community and to society."

Using minors in prostitution is a billion dollar industry in the city

Haima Desshpande, Daily News & Analysis DNA, Mar 9, 2007

[accessed 24 May 2011]

For most, Mumbai remains a city of dreams. But, for some, it has become a place full of nightmares.  In recent years, the financial capital of the country has emerged as one of the leading markets for trafficked minors who engage in prostitution or, in other words, the commercial sexual abuse of a minor.

As instances of HIV and AIDS reach alarming proportions, demand for younger, pre-puberty girls has hit an all-time high. Girls as little as seven and eight-years-old are being forced into prostitution, both in the red-light areas and as “professional” call girls (always accompanied by an adult), according to a DNA investigation.  “Trafficking in minor girls has seen an estimated 30 per cent increase from previous years,” says a social activist working at Kamatipura — the city’s most notorious red-light district.

“Poverty due to prolonged drought, mounting farm debts, unemployment and lack of livelihood are the triggering factors, which are forcing parents to send their daughters out of town for employment.”   “Even when girls are rescued, families are unwilling to take them back,” says the police source. “This has become a common story in the rural areas.”

Study reveals male child sexual abuse in Puri

Toysoldier, November 28, 2008

[accessed 24 May 2011]

According to the study, all the children explained poverty as one of the factors responsible for their situation.  “I am staying with Joseph (a French tourist) for the last five years. He says that he will take me with him.  I have sex with him regularly. Initially it was painful, I used to cry. Now it is a daily routine. He gives money to my family. He has sex with other children also. Sometimes, he wants us to have sex with each other (peer children). I am just waiting for the day when he will take me with him and so I agree with whatever he does to me and my family,” said Raju, a 15-year-old boy, according to the study.

“Building relationship with foreign tourists is more profitable than domestic tourists as foreign tourists provide children with toys, chocolates, cycles, nice dresses and sometimes money to renovate their houses or to build house as well.”  They have sex with a wide range of tourists who pay any amount ranging between Rs 50 and Rs 200 per day, the study says.


*** ARCHIVES ***

CHILDLINE - Toll Free Call 1098 - Night & Day

[accessed 12 August 2014]

CHILDLINE reaches out to all children in need of care and protection such as: street children, child labourers, children who have been abused, child victims of flesh trade, differently-abled children, child addicts, children in conflict with the law, children in institutions, mentally challenged children, HIV/AIDs infected children, children affected by conflict and disaster, child political refugees, children whose families are in crises.

Delhi Govt. Started the toll free 'Youth Phone service’  1-800-11-6888

The Government of Delhi running the 'youth' helpline named Yuva Phone line in Delhi. The counsellors are available round the clock on toll free no 1800116888.  The helpline is specially for students.

Website to track missing children launched

Anasuya Menon, The Hindu, Coimbatore, Feb 10, 2007

[accessed 10 February 2011]

[accessed 6 November 2016]

Anyone who has lost their child can post a message on this website and a search will be set in motion simultaneously in 40 cities in the country.  Launched by Don Bosco National Forum for Youth at Risk in association with UNICEF, will be closely watched and monitored by child welfare organisations in all major cities in the country and a search will be generated immediately. The Don Bosco National Forum for Youth at Risk is a major partner of Childline India Foundation and extends service to hundreds of children who are victims of war, conflict, natural calamities, sexual exploitation, trafficking and HIV/AIDS. They also take care of street and working children.

National Center For Missing Children India

[accessed 24 May 2011]

National Center For Missing Children (NCMC) is a non-political, non-profit making and a non-governmental organization offering the services free of charge.

ECPAT Country Monitoring Report [PDF]

Irene Pietropaoli, ECPAT International, 2011

[accessed 31 August 2020]

Desk review of existing information on the sexual exploitation of children (SEC) in India. The report looks at protection mechanisms, responses, preventive measures, child and youth participation in fighting SEC, and makes recommendations for action against SEC.

Human Rights Reports » 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 31 August 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - The law prohibits child pornography and sets the legal age of consent at 18. It is illegal to pay for sex with a minor, to induce a minor into prostitution or any form of “illicit sexual intercourse,” or to sell or buy a minor for the purposes of prostitution. Violators are subject to 10 years’ imprisonment and a fine.

Special courts to try child sexual abuse cases existed in all six Delhi courts. Civil society groups observed, however, that large caseloads severely limited judges’ abilities to take on cases in a timely manner. Lack of training in handling forensic evidence also adversely affected case handling.

NGOs noted a significant increase of death penalty sentences for those convicted of egregious cases of sexual assault of children. In 2018 trial courts sentenced 162 persons to death, which was the highest in two decades. At the same time, the Supreme Court commuted death sentences in 11 out of 12 cases that came before it. Supreme Court justice Kurian Joseph expressed concern about the constitutionality of the death penalty in an opinion, highlighting that the death penalty lacks deterrent and reformatory purpose. NGOs suggested within a dominantly punitive environment, the Supreme Court judge’s views were indicative of the understanding of how punitive justice may not be as effective as is widely presumed.

In May the Delhi High Court examined the extended delays of child sexual abuse cases in Delhi, numbering 6,414 cases, and directed the Delhi government to establish 18 more fast-track courts to address pending cases.

The movement toward harsher punishments for child sexual abuse continued. On August 1, parliament passed the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019. The act seeks to protect children from offenses such as sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography and provides stringent punishment for sexual crimes against children and death penalty in cases of aggravated sexual assault.

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, US Dept of Labor, 2019

[accessed 31 August 2020]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

[page 617]

Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking are more likely to be children from marginalized groups, such as low-caste Hindus, members of tribal communities, and religious minorities. (65) Children from marginalized groups also face barriers to accessing education. Teachers sometimes subject these children to discrimination and harassment. (93,94)

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 26 February 2004

[accessed 10 February 2011]

[74] The Committee expresses its concern at the increasing number of child victims of sexual exploitation, including prostitution and pornography. Concern is also expressed at the insufficient programs for the physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of child victims of such abuse and exploitation.

Prostitution of boys at India's pilgrim sites called rampant

Deutsche Presse-Agentur (German Press Agency) DPA, New Delhi, Mar 10, 2009

[accessed 29 May 2011]

[accessed 6 November 2016]

Sexual exploitation of boys in three of India's major pilgrimage centres is pervasive and on the rise, a study released Tuesday said.   The study focused on male children in prostitution at Hindu temple sites of Puri in eastern Orissa state and Tirupati and Guruvayoor in southern Andhra.

'There is a dearth of information on male child sexual exploitation and prostitution due to the assumption that most sexual exploiters are men and therefore their victims are women or girls. However, this is not true,' said S Vidya, a coordinator with the Equations.   'The double standards that society has about homosexuality and the fact that it is criminalized in India only makes the problem less visible.'   In Tirupati, which receives mostly Indians, a survey of boys aged between 6 and 18 years revealed that sexual abuse of boys is rampant due to demand from domestic tourists. Pressure on boys to earn a living for the family was cited as a reason why they were forced into prostitution.   'Family members saw less risk when male children are involved in selling sex as compared to girls, as the social stigma is less and the fear of pregnancy does not exist,' the report said.

Prostitution thriving on teenagers in northeast

Maitreyee Boruah, Indo-Asian News Service IANS, Guwahati, May 31, 2008

The contents of this article had appeared under a different title and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 29 May 2011]

All is not well with children in India's northeast. A study conducted by a Guwahati-based NGO along with the police has revealed that a shocking 20 percent involved in prostitution in the region are aged between 11 and 17 years.  The survey conducted this year by the Global Organisation for Life Development (GOLD) also pointed out that there was a five percent rise in children taking to sex work over last year.  Titled "Rise in Child Prostitution in Northeast", the study lists poverty and displacement of population because of violence as prime reasons behind the increase in the number of children as commercial sex workers in the region.  "It is mostly the children of poor parents who are forced to take to prostitution to earn money for the family," director of GOLD Rajeev Sarma said.

In addition, the report also states that most of the children are victims of acute physical torture. "They are initially raped and flogged almost to death to take up the profession," the report said.

Assam human trafficking: A startling revelation!

Jogesh Doley,, Apr 06, 2008

[accessed 10 February 2011]

Every year thousands of tea tribe girls are lured by people and taken to different parts of India, to work as slave and in most of the cases they lands up in brothels. Those who are forced into sex work, or who are vulnerable to sexual exploitation as domestic labourers, are particularly at risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancy.

The plight of the women from this community has remained unheard and unattended, since ages and they are have no other options but to migrate and to follow the people who lure them and assure them good jobs out side the state. - htcp

The scourge of human trafficking in India

Sandhya Nigam,, Mar 17, 2008

[accessed 10 February 2011]

When Mona was 13 years, her mother died and her father remarried. The stepmother was uncomfortable with Mona and wanted to send her away for some job, where she would be able to look after herself. Along came a ”contractor” who arranged jobs for youngsters as domestic help, etc. He paid a certain sum of money to the stepmother and took Mona to a town far away. He got her a job in a massage parlour as a ‘receptionist’. Even before Mona got to know the work profile, she realized that she had been trapped into sexual exploitation. She had become a sexual slave to the ‘customers’ who frequented the place for full-body massage.

HIV Prevention among street children in India : Lessons learned

Mohammed MU; International Conference on AIDS -- Int Conf AIDS. 2002 Jul 7-12; 14: abstract no. WeOrD1273, S.V.University, Dept. of Population Studies, Tirupati - Andhra Pradesh, India

[accessed 25 May 2011]

India has the largest number of street children in the age group of 8-18 years. They are exposed to all kinds of risky social environment. They are prone to drinking alcohol, smoking, begging, pick-pocketing and many other similar vices. A vast majority of the street children indulge in sex at a very young age (after crossing 14 years of age). The Government of India felt that there was a potent danger of the spreading of HIV/AIDS among the street children and from them to the general public. - sccp

Children’s Day under the shadow of the rape of childhood

Rishabh, merinews, Nov 13, 2007

[accessed 25 May 2011]

The definition of a ‘child’ in the Indian legal and policy framework is someone below 18 years. Our laws are neither child friendly nor child oriented. Here are few figures:  - sccp

q  Less than half of India’s children between the age of six and 14 go to school.

q  Only 38 per cent of children below two years are immunised.

q  Over 50 per cent children are malnourished.

q  One out of every six girls does not live to see her 15th birthday.

q  Of 12 million girls born, one million do not see their first birthday.

q  Females are victimised far more than males in their childhood.

q  53 per cent of girls in the age group of five to nine years are illiterate.

q  There are two million child commercial sex workers between the age of five and 15 years.

q  17 million children in India work out of compulsion, not out of choice.

Women emerge as primary victims in trafficking

Nava Thakuria, Law Resource India, October 28, 2007 -- National Network of Lawyers for Rights and Justice NNLRJ

[accessed 10 February 2011]

Porous borders with economically poorer Bangladesh and Nepal (from where none need visa to visit India) aggravate the problem of cross-border trafficking. Bangladesh remained a source country for women and children for a quite a long time, traffickers target their preys in the poverty stricken rural areas.  On the other hand, Nepal is identified as a source country in the region. Fair looking Nepali young women are the primary victims of the trafficking, though new trend emerges with attraction for boys too. Unconfirmed statistics reveal that in average 12,000 Nepali women with minors are trafficked every year for sexual exploitation in outer countries. Most of the trafficked women from Nepal were later found infected with HIV/AIDS and also tuberculosis.

Addressing the conference, the minister Ms Chowdhury also argued that trafficking is by and large a gendered phenomenon. The trafficking in India is primarily for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. There are nearly three million sex workers in India and 40 per cent of them are children or adolescent girls. Statistics reveal that children below the age of 10 years are also found in the brothel of Indian cities like Mumbai and Delhi now a day, the minister disclosed.  "Many believe that having sex with young and virgin girls would cure them of diseases. It is nonsense," Ms Chowdhury uttered. She emphasized on reducing the demand for prostitutes, engagement of children in workplaces, use of forced labour and empowering all collaborative efforts of governments, NGOs and other institutions to deal with the situation. – htcp

Action plan to combat human trafficking

The Hindu, New Delhi, Oct 10, 2007

[accessed 29 May 2011]

[accessed 22 October 2017]

According to the Minister of State for Women and Child Development (independent charge), Renuka Chowdhury, there were about three million sex workers, 40 per cent of whom were children, and their demand was increasing.

Over 650 Indian trafficking victims rescued: UNODC

Press Trust of India, 3 Oct 2007

[accessed 11 February 2011]

Over 650 Indians, including 138 minors, who were victims to human trafficking, were rescued during the first six months of this year, an United Nations agency said here today.

He claimed the average age of girls being trafficked in South Asia was dropping.  "While in 1980, the average age of trafficked girls was 14 to 16 years, it dropped to 10-14 years in 1994. The figure in 2006 has decreased," he said.

Natalie Grant Helps Expand Efforts against Human Trafficking

Kevin Jackson, The Christian Post, Jul. 22 2007

[accessed 29 May 2011]

Grant has been able to witness the process first hand with her travels around the world, particularly a trip to the red-light district of Mumbai, India.  "I was walking down the street in Mumbai, in broad daylight, when my eyes locked on a little girl, maybe 6 or 7 years old, peering out of a cage, looking at us on the street below. It was beyond my imagination," said Grant on her website. "I'll never forget that moment. That was her life. Every day people walked by, and they didn't even notice her."

"Homelessness and poverty are tragic enough," added Grant, "but some of these children are kept in cages and forced to perform heinous, unfathomable acts 50 and 60 times a day. And you never hear anyone talk about it."

No age of innocence, this Study reveals 14% of sex workers are children aged 10-17

The Telegraph, Guwahati, July 17, 2007

[accessed 29 May 2011]

If this makes you wince, there is more. A study conducted by Global Organisation for Life Development, an NGO, in co-ordination with Guwahati police has revealed that a startling 14 per cent of those involved in prostitution are children aged between 10 and 17. And those who gratify their lurid and perverse desires by exploiting children are not part of the city’s underbelly but affluent, well-heeled people who lend Guwahati much of its sheen.

Behind every minor languishing in the flesh trade is a heartrending tale. Some have been forced into prostitution by acquaintances or relatives, while others have been lured by the hope of a better life. For a few, the parents themselves turned into pimps.  Police have identified Kalapahar, Nabin Nagar, Rajgarh, Pandu, Dispur, Beltola, Ganeshguri and Hatigaon areas of Guwahati as hubs of prostitution and trafficking.

Untamed legacy

Ashish Mitra, Screen India - The Indian Express News Service, 2007-07-13

[accessed 29 May 2011]


I cannot talk about it in detail but at one point I read, “The Dommara tribe from Andhra Pradesh and several tribes across the Northern belt of the country practice family-based prostitution. The Dommara tribe’s pushing their girls into prostitution at puberty is the most extreme example of prostitution - based gender oppression within a community. Sex abuse of girls in this system manifests even before the girls’ initiation into the system. Young girls who will be initiated into the system are often subjected to sexual abuse from family and villages right upto the time of their initiation ceremony. At that point, they go through a ritual that is typical in that they are married to the village deity. The girls are forced to submit to group sex with village leaders and priests within the temple for a full week while her family and the rest of the village feasts and celebrates. My grief knew no ends but I at the same time resolved to research on the matter myself.

Documentary tells story of India's child prostitutes

Susan Stewart, New York Times, June 23, 2007

[access restricted]

The India story becomes only sadder: Ling tells us that there are half a million "sex slaves" in India, and that the average age of a prostitute is 14.

Slavery In India

Author/Publisher unknown - Apr 26, 2008

[accessed 14 July 2013]

The increase in human trafficking cases in the last couple of years is worrying NGOs and exposes the government’s apathy towards the social evil.  Figures say that more than 60 girls from Karnataka, who fell prey to human trafficking, have been rescued from brothels and red light areas in Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi.  These rescued girls, in the age-group of 12 to 20 years, are mostly from the northern districts of Bijapur, Bagalkot, Shimoga, Mysore, Mandya and Chamrajnagar.  They fall easy prey to the agents who assure them of jobs and attractive earnings, but they land up in brothels.

State unaware of child abuse situation, projecting deflated figues

newindpress, Bhubaneswar Orissa, April 12 2007

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 14 September 2011]

The pilgrim town of Puri is a haven for child prostitution and rampant paedophilia. A recent study conducted by the Institute of Socio Economic Development with support from United Nations Development Fund for Women says that Puri is the heart of child trafficking and accounts for over 43 percent of the cases.

But the State Administration and Police make no attempt to move because the holy town also happens to be a tourist hotspot.

How to change the world - The role of the social entrepreneur

Nikhil Mustaffa, The Daily Mirror, March 15, 2007

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 14 September 2011]

As Childline expanded to new cities, the call-tracking system also emerged as an important source of child protection information. National data showed that the biggest killer of street children was tuberculosis, but regional call patterns revealed a variety of local problems. In Jaipur, for example, childline received reports of abuse in the garment and jewelry industries. In Varanasi, there were reports of children being abducted to work in the sari industry. In Delhi, many calls came from middle-class children. In Nagpur, a transit hub, there were frequent reports of children abandoned in train stations. In Goa, a beach resort, a major problem was the sexual abuse of children by foreign tourists.

From street child to surgeon, Indian girl follows dream

Jeremy Lovell, Jaipur, Reuters, 19 February 2007

[accessed 26 May 2011]

[accessed 6 November 2016]

Chand’s mother was a prostitute with 16 children living in Japiur’s red light area, and the girl — her family name has been withheld to protect her — was already a child prostitute when she ran away to eke an existence on the streets aged six.

Even for Chand, there is the constant threat of her past dragging her back to wreck her future.

“If I saw my family again they would want me back to become a prostitute again to earn money,” she said simply.

Rape for Profit: Trafficking of Nepali Girls and Women to India's Brothels

Human Rights Watch, 1 June 1995,463af2212,49709ebd2,3ae6a7e24,0.html

[accessed 29 May 2011]

[accessed 8 November 2016]

When they brought me here, it was in a taxi. I kept looking around, wondering what kind of work was going on in this area of this big city. Everywhere I looked, I saw curtained doorways and rooms. Men would go and come through these curtained entrances. People on the street would be calling out, “Two rupees, two rupees.” I asked the other Nepali women if these were offices; it seemed the logical explanation. In two days I knew everything. I cried. Tara N., a Nepali woman who was trafficked into India at sixteen.

Child prostitution in India


At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 29 May 2011]

A survey conducted by Indian Health Organization of a red light area of Bombay shows:-

1.     20% of the one lakh prostitutes are children.

2.     25% of the child prostitutes had been abducted and sold.

3.     6% had been raped and sold.

4.     8% had been sold by their fathers after forcing them into incestuous relationships.

5.     2 lakh minor girls between ages 9yrs-20yrs were brought every year from Nepal to India and 20,000 of them are in Bombay brothels.

6.     15% to 18% are adolescents between 13 yrs and 18 yrs.

Bombay HC Lambasts Police Inaction in Curbing Human Trafficking

United News & Information UNI, September 12, 2006

[accessed 11 February 2011]

The court was told that the number of minor girls rescued from brothels during the last three years was shocking. As many as 26 girls were rescued in 2003, twelve in 2004, 31 girls were rescued in 2005 and 27 during the current year, the court was told.

Human trafficking from Nepal on rise [PDF]

Mohan Budhair, Kathmandu Post, Paliya India, 8 September 2006

[accessed 29 May 2011]

[page 22] Trafficking of Nepalese women and children into India, especially from the western districts, has increased significantly in recent days due to lax security at border checkpoints.

A large number of women and children are being trafficked into India from checkpoints west of Butwal, representatives of several Indian and Nepalese non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and security officials stated during an interaction on 'controlling cross-border human trafficking'.

Sex and the City of Joy

Sarah Stuteville, The Common Language Project, University of Washington, Kolkata,  May 8, 2006

[accessed 29 May 2011]

ONE WOMAN’S STORY - At 14, Pandey was married off to a man 20 years her senior who had designs on inheriting her ailing father’s government job and a cut of his pension. When another sister’s husband got the position instead, the abuse began.

India is transit hub for human trafficking

Indo-Asian News Service IANS, New Delhi, June 22, 2006

Click [here] to connect.  The URL is not shown because of its length

[accessed 21 April 2012]

'Although Mumbai and Goa are the favourite destinations for paedophilic activity, where children are trafficked, tourist destinations in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Orissa are also not far behind,' Kant said.

Sexual Slavery; AIDS; India's Hidden Enemy

Calgary Sun, 13 August 2006

[access information unavailable]

Though it's been against the law since 1982, as many as 5,000 families each year still offer daughters to a deity or temple, sometimes before the girls reach puberty. Secret wedding services take place at night, and child-brides, each month, are given in marriage to the gods. It's usually the priests, or uncles, who take the devadasis' virginity -- once they've had their first period. Then, at a price which starts at the equivalent of a few dollars, they belong to upper-caste community members. Or whoever can pay, as they try to compete with traditional sex workers. Often, the women do their duty to the gods, and men, while living with their parents. The temple girls are never allowed to marry. They are common property. The men -- for a night or months or even years -- own them, body and soul.

Slavery in Our Time

Nicholas D. Kristof, The New York Times, January 22, 2006

[accessed 12 February 2011]

Historians will look back in puzzlement at the way our 21st century world tolerates the slavery of more than a million children in brothels around the world.

India alone may have half a million children in its brothels, more than any other country in the world. Visit the brothel district in almost any city in India, and you can meet 14-year-old girls who have been kidnapped off the street, or drugged, or offered jobs as maids, and then sold into a world that they often escape only by dying of AIDS.

Indo-Pak girls forced into prostitution

Asian News International ANI, Lahore, February 6, 2006

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 29 May 2011]

In a startling case of organised women trafficking that has come to light, Pakistani and Indian girls aged between 11 and 13 are being smuggled to the Middle East countries for being forced into prostitution there. The girls, who are shown as aged between 20 and 22 on their passports, are brought to these countries on the pretext of getting them attracting jobs.

Working Together - Fighting the sex-trafficking menace

Prof. Donna M. Hughes, University of Rhode Island, National Review, January 26, 2006

[accessed 26 January 2015]

The Prerana Anti-Trafficking Center is a nongovernmental organization run by Pravin and Priti Patkar in Mumbai, India. The Patkars have initiated many programs, trainings, and camps to assist victims of the sex trade. They have developed curricula for training police and service providers. They run a camp every year for vulnerable children to prevent them from being drawn into the sex industry. The Patkars run a night shelter to protect the children of women who do not yet have the resources to leave prostitution, but want their children away from the red-light area. They have challenged traffickers in court when traffickers tried to regain custody of girls rescued in raids, and they have advocated for stronger laws against pimps and traffickers.

Hitting Brothel Owners where it Hurts

Nicholas D. Kristof, The New York Times, Calcutta, January 24, 2006

[accessed 14 July 2013]

Imagine what you would have done if you'd been in Hasina Bibi's sandals.  She was a lonely 16-year-old working in a garment factory in Bangladesh when an older employee began mothering her. They grew close, and one day the older woman gave Hasina some cakes to eat.  Two days later, Hasina emerged from a drug-induced stupor in India, sold to a brothel in faraway Gujarat. The brothel's owner beat Hasina and threatened to deform her face with acid if she tried to escape. She had to do whatever the customers wanted, with or without condoms.

Prostitution of Nepalese girls rampant in Indian brothel

Kolkata, Nov 20, 2005 – Source:

[accessed 21 April  2012]

''Young girls are trafficked from Nepal to brothels in Mumbai and Kolkata at an average age of twelve. They are trapped into the vicious cycle of prostitution, debt and slavery. By the time they are in their mid-twenties, they are at the dead end or 'cul-de-sac','' the study noted.

USAID Funds NGO in India that Helps Brothels Retain Child Prostitute

Catholic Family & Human Rights Institute, New York, October 21, 2005

[accessed 19 September 2011]

In May, Restore International, an anti-trafficking non-governmental organization (NGO) in India that works to stop underage prostitution, performed a raid that resulted in the rescue of 35 girls from an Indian brothel. A Bush Administration official told the Friday Fax that while Indian law allows legal prostitution, it is forbidden for girls under the age of 18. The source said such teenage prostitutes are common due to the easy accessibility of forged documents.

Teen escapes sex trade

The Telegraph, Krishnagar, August 10, 2005

[accessed 12 February 2011]

Tasmina Khatun agreed to elope with Muku Mondal, a man she loved, not knowing the nightmare she was inviting.  Police yesterday rescued the 15-year-old girl from the Sunderbans when she was about to be taken to Kashmir to be sold off to flesh traders.

Speaking out for the `nameless'

S. Anil Radhakrishnan, The Hindu, May 31, 2005

[accessed 12 February 2011]

"Anamika" (the nameless) is a documentary on trafficking of women and children from Andhra Pradesh to various parts of the country.  It narrates how young girls are deceived, forced or coerced to enter the trade every year.

Five Years After Stockholm [PDF]

ECPAT: Fifth Report on implementation of the Agenda for Action

ECPAT International, November 2001

[accessed 13 September 2011]

[B] COUNTRY UPDATES – INDIA – The Government of India has had a national Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children since 1998. The plan provides specific measures to be taken by Central and State Governments for the prevention and suppression of CSEC. The Government states that it has given financial support to NGOs to rehabilitate victims and their children through education and income generation programs, as well as to provide temporary shelter in transit homes. However, NGOs claim that the government is inactive in implementing the Plan of Action and that most of the programs remain only on paper.

Thailand Ranks Third in Number of Child Prostitution[Editor’s note: India Ranks First]

People's Daily Online

[accessed 29 May 2011]

Thailand ranks third after India and the U.S. in the number of child prostitutes, the United Nations (UN) said in its report prepared for the Second World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation.  According to the U.N. report, about 400,000 women and children are believed to be sexually exploited in India, between 244,000 and 325,000 in the U.S., 200,000 in Thailand, 175,000 in eastern and central Europe, 100,000 in Brazil and 35,000 in West Africa.

Child Prostitution in Nepal/India


At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 29 May 2011]

Every year, thousands of Nepalese girls, some as young as 11 are sent to or procured for brothels in the big Indian cities, like Bombay or Calcutta.  They are often the daughters of poor farming families, where everyone must help with the family income.

Child Prostitution In India

Sarika Misha, People's Union for Civil Liberties PUCL Bulletin, August 1987

[accessed 29 May 2011]

V. CONDITIONS - For decades the most important red light areas have been enjoying the police protection. The policemen themselves go to the brothels for tea snacks and girls. They inform the brothel keepers in advance about the raids which are scheduled to take place.

The police, the brothel keeper, and pimps share the major part of the earnings of the prostitutes and the rest of it that percolates down to the prostitutes is a mere pittance. It is alleged that the police and abet the running of the brothels. They accept the hospitability, money and free use of the girls. The police helps the brothel keeper even by bringing back the ones who have run away. In a case where a girl named Geeta who was ten years old was rescued by a hawker after many attempts was returned back to the brothel keeper by the inspector himself on the same day.

Action against child prostitution in Maduraď

Enfants Des Rues - Reper

[accessed 29 May 2011]

[click on The Local Context]

Certain studies in India indicate that over 50% of girls are raped before reaching the age of 15.  A decade-long drought in the area around Madurai, has provoked a rural exodus. A large part of the population that is leaving for the cities consists of children.  Fending alone for themselves, they are easy targets for gangs who are always searching for new recruits. In this way, a lot of children wind up in organized crime, prostitution, become shoplifters or purse-snatchers, middlemen in the resale of stolen goods, drug-dealers, mendicants...

Child Prostitution Figures Up in India

Bhawana Negi, Stolen Childhood, Oct 17 2005

[accessed 29 May 2011]

Girls under 14 years of age constitute 30 percent of 900,000 prostitutes in India.  It was also estimated that in the coming years, the situation could become worse if the rehabilitation is not provided to the “retired” prostitutes, who drag children in this profession as the source of income.

When Police Act As Pimps: Glimpses Into Child Prostitution In India

Debabrata R., PMID: 12321933, [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE], U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 1998 Mar-Apr;(105):27-31

[accessed 29 May 2011]

A random sample of 28 out of 86 brothels along the G. B. Road in India revealed that almost 60% of the prostitutes were children.  Police officers extort money from traffickers, prostitutes, and madams and abet the system of prostitution through a scheme of false registration of the girls that creates the fiction that they are not minors.

Cops Involved In Child Prostitution

Times News Network (The Times of India) TNN, Mumbai, Jul 15, 2004

[accessed 29 May 2011]

Social activist Anson Thomas, who has accompanied the police in at least 14 raids at brothels in Nagpada and D B Marg areas, alleged that some constables and sub-inspectors are known for taking bribes directly from minors.

A Brief Report on Study on CSEC [DOC]

Joseph Gathia, Child Rights and the Media Asia Regional Meeting in Bangkok Thailand Organised by The International Federation of Journalists IFJ with the support of the European Commission

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 29 May 2011]

STUDY IN CHILD PROSTITUTION BY CCCL - The study revealed the policies of promoting tourism without being sensitive to the local needs, is causing a phenomenal growth in child prostitution. The study pointed out that the golden triangle of tourism on Agra- Delhi Jaipur belt has spewed a flourishing trade in child prostitution among Rajasthan’s nomadic tribes-with middlemen coercing and luring girls as young as ten years into sex business.  Growing tourism is major contributing factor to this phenomenon.

Children and Women Trafficking in Nepal

Professor Yi Ki Ho, Korea -- Project co-ordinates: Srijana Acharya, Nepal, and Rajender Singh (Rocky), India

[accessed 29 May 2011]

It was 10 years ago.13-year-old Mira of Nepal was offered a job as a domestic worker in Mumbai, India. Instead she arrived at a brothel on Mumbai's Falkland Road, where tens of thousands of young women are displayed in row after row of zoo-like animal cages. Her father had been duped into giving her to a trafficker. When she refused to have sex, she was dragged into a torture chamber in a dark alley used for 'breaking-in' new girls. She was locked in a narrow, windowless room without food or water. On the fourth day, one of the goondas (thug) wrestled her to the floor and banged her head against the concrete. When she awoke, she was naked. Later she was raped by the goonda and red chilly powder was put into her vagina. Afterwards, she complied with their demands. The madam told Mira that she had been sold to the brothel for 75,000 rupees (about US$ 1,000), that she had to work until she paid off her debt. Now when she returned back to her house and told that she was carrying AIDS she was prejudiced from her family and society so she is staying in rehabilitation center in Kathmandu.

Goa fast becoming a hub of child prostitution

The Goan Voice Newsletter. Issue 2004-21. Jun 03, 2004

[accessed 29 May 2011]

[scroll down to GOA NEWS HEADLINES]

28 MAY. TIMES OF INDIA. HEADLINE - Goa fast becoming a hub of child prostitution. Excerpt: Once a hot tourist spot, Goa is now witnessing an alarming rise in sexual abuse of children in the 10-16 age group. According to social scientists, more than 10,000 paedophiles visit the coastal state every year and molest children.

Young flesh in the trade

Malvika Kaul, Women's Feature Service WFS, New Delhi, October 2004

[accessed 12 February 2011]

Out of the 464 victims of CSE, almost 23 per cent started their lives in the brothels when they were less than 16. Two per cent were aged between 13-15. According to the victims, both men and women (in almost equal numbers) were involved in trafficking. Over 68 per cent were lured by promises of jobs while 17 per cent were promised marriage. Despite being in brothels for several years, almost 61 per cent had no savings. – htcp




ECPAT Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial exploitation of children - INDIA [PDF]

ECPAT International, 2006

[accessed 29 May 2011]

Research conducted in 2003 by ECPAT International and Equations, its affiliate group in India, highlighted the increase of child sex tourism in India. Offenders include foreign tourists and local citizens. It is important to note the local demand for sex tourism, as the general perception is that only foreign tourists engage in child sex tourism and there is either ignorance or total denial of the local demand for child sex. Ways in which offenders gain access to children vary from directly approaching children on the beach by offering them a drink or a meal and taking them back to their hotel or going through intermediaries, such as shack owners or taxi drivers. Aside from Goa, there have been reported cases of child sex tourism in Mumbai, Kerala, Kolkata, Pondicheri and other popular tourist destinations. A report released by the Institute of Social Sciences in New Delhi warned of India becoming a destination for paedophiles in the so-called ‘Golden Triangle’ of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. Similarly, there have been media reports of the popular ‘house boats’, which are used for sexual exploitation of children in the State of Kerala. In some cases, the hotels are linked with such illicit activities or are aware of cases of individuals regularly abusing street children, as reported by Sanlaap, an ECPAT member group, in Kolkata. Bringing these hotels to the attention of law enforcers has proven difficult given the lack of strong witness reports that provide evidence for use in a court of law.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 10 February 2011]

Note:: Also check out this country’s report in the more recent edition DOL Worst Forms of Child Labor

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Commercial sexual exploitation of children, including child sex tourism, occurs in major cities. India is a source, destination, and transit country for trafficking of children for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and other forms of exploitive labor.  Children are reported to be trafficked from India to the Middle East and Western countries such as the United States and Europe; into India from Bangladesh and Nepal; and through the country to Pakistan and the Middle East.  Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi are major destination cities for young girls trafficked from Nepal and Bangladesh for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. Children are also trafficked within India for sexual exploitation and forced or bonded labor. Organized crime and police corruption were common factors that contributed to the overall situation of trafficking in India. An August 2004 study by the government estimated that almost half of the trafficked children interviewed were between the ages of 11 to 14 years.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed 9 February 2020]

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS - An estimated 6 to 10 thousand children from Nepal and Bangladesh were trafficked into the country annually for commercial sexual exploitation. Girls as young as seven years of age were trafficked from economically depressed neighborhoods in Nepal, Bangladesh, and rural areas of the country to the major prostitution centers of Mumbai, Calcutta, and New Delhi. NGOs estimated that there were approximately 100 to 200 thousand women and girls working in brothels in Mumbai, and 40 to 100 thousand in Calcutta.

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