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Poverty & Hunger

Bolivarian Republic of


In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Venezuela

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Venezuela in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Venezuela

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 17 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 11 January 2021]

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for almost all export earnings and nearly half of the government’s revenue; domestic production and industry continues to severely underperform; continues to rely on imports to meet its basic food and consumer goods needs.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,500 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 7.3%

industry: 21.8%

services: 70.9% (4th quarter, 2011 est.)

Unemployment rate: 27.1% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 19.7% (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 125 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 27.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 95.7% of population

Physicians density: --

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 93.9% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 99.6% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Venezuela

[accessed 21 March 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Colombia Needs Help Helping Venezuelan Refugees

~ Humanitarian Crisis: Vital Relief To Venezuela

~ Blackouts: The Issue Of Electricity In Venezuela

~ Reforms For Saving The Venezuelan Economy

~ No Water, No Power: Child Poverty In Venezuela

~ The Link Between Poverty And Inflation

~ Rappi: The Colombian Unicorn That Has Given Venezuelans A Chance

~ Alimenta La Solidaridad Fights Food Insecurity

~ Bettertogether Challenge Offers Hope To Venezuelans

Conflict, climate change, and COVID-19 drive extreme hunger

Oxfam, 9 July 2021

[accessed 19 July 2021]

The effects of conflict, COVID-19, and climate change have intensified the global hunger crisis.

VENEZUELA -- Clavel Lopez,* 62, lives in a border municipality of Venezuela. Getting food to eat is a daily struggle. Heavy rains plague the area, so people like Clavel, who survives off the food grown in her small plantation, face further food insecurity.

As a pensioner, Lopez receives a monthly income and rations. Since the pandemic began, she says the rations have been cut down to a packet of flour or a kilo of rice.

Millions of Venezuelans are Fleeing Hunger, Poverty and Instability

Sofia Sprechmann, CARE, Quito Ecuador, 15 May 2021

[accessed 16 May 2021]

Over 3 million people have now fled Venezuela due to instability, hunger and poverty. Almost half of them are estimated to be women and around 30 percent children. 90 percent of the country’s population has dropped below the poverty line and 300,000 children are at risk of dying from malnutrition. 

The current humanitarian crisis in Venezuela and the surrounding region is having a particularly alarming effect on women and girls. As women try desperately to feed and clothe their families, an increasing number are being forced or tricked into prostitution by trafficking rings. The often illegal status of Venezuelan women in many countries within the region also increases their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse.

The World Bank in Venezuela

[accessed 21 April 2021]

Currently, the World Bank does not have a portfolio of active loans in Venezuela.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 12 January 2021]

For over 40 years the economy has been completely dominated by the petroleum industry; in the mid-1980s, oil exports accounted for 90% of all export value, and in 2002 petroleum accounted for over one-third of the GDP, three-fourths of export revenues and half of government revenues.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Prof. Martin Patt, "Poverty - Venezuela",, [accessed <date>]