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In the early years of the 21st Century


Description: Description: Turkey

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Turkey in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Turkey

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 17 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 11 January 2021]

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - largely free-market economy driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors; agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment; highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources

GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,000 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 18.4%

industry: 26.6%

services: 54.9% (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.9% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 21.9% (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.7 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 98.9% of population

Physicians density: 1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 97.3% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Turkey

[accessed 14 March 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

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World Bank Provides $265 million Boost to Improve Earthquake Resilience and Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings in Turkey

World Bank, Washington, 9 June 2021

[ Long URL ]

[accessed 10 June 2021]

“Buildings with the greatest vulnerability to disasters are also energy inefficient. By combining structural strengthening of buildings with energy efficiency and renewable energy measures, this project will yield significant cost efficiencies while fostering long-term resilience and sustainability,” noted Alanna Simpson, one of the World Bank Project Team Leaders.

“The project will also result in much lower operating costs which the government can redeploy to make other improvements in the provision of public services,” added Jas Singh, the other World Bank Team Leader.

Children who work in the street in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Hatice Bal Yilmaz & Şeyda Dülgerler

February 2011, Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal 39(1):129-144

DOI: 10.2224/sbp.2011.39.1.129

[accessed 14 March 2021]

ABSTRACT - Using Izmir, Turkey as a case study the risk factors leading children to work in the streets were identified. Participants in the study were 226 children working in the streets, average age 10.35±2.21 who worked 6.8±2.11 hours per day. The great majority of the children were boys (90.2%), 77.9% were of primary school age; two-thirds of the children were working to provide an economic contribution to the family; 86.6% were from a large family; 78.8% were from a family that migrated to a big city. Almost all did not find working in the street safe; and nearly half were not hopeful about the future. It was established that frequent problems in the children's families include poverty, unemployment, poor education, having a large family, poor family functioning, migration, limited possibilities of shelter, and domestic violence, including the beating of wives and children. Although nearly all the children still lived with their families, a small percentage of the children (5.8%) had begun living permanently on the streets and then cut ties with their families. A significant relationship was found between living on the streets and the age of the child, the father's education, and the father's use of alcohol.

The World Bank in Turkey

[accessed 21 April 2021]

Turkey has quickly adopted measures to help contain the spread of COVID-19 and save lives, whilst providing economic support to affected firms and households. The economic outlook is more uncertain, than usual and will depend on how quickly this unprecedented crisis can be brought under control.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 12 January 2021]

Since the end of World War II, the agricultural share of the economy has declined, while that of the industrial sector (including construction) has expanded. This shift in economic activity is in part the result of deliberate government policy. Mechanization of agriculture has produced a significant shift in population from farms to cities, necessitating substantial urban and industrial development and, hence, a high rate of investment. However, this heavy investment, plus an explosion of consumer demand, has also contributed to severe inflation and balance-of payments problems.

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