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In the early years of the 21st Century


Description: Description: Panama

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Panama in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

In Panama, extreme weather events can vary significantly due to its tropical climate and geographical diversity. There are heavy and prolonged rainfalls, especially during the wet season with windstorms and tropical cyclones bringing strong winds and heavy rain. In addition to all this, periods of drought can occur, leading to water scarcity and increased wildfire risk. El Niño Southern Oscillation impacts can affect weather patterns, and tsunamis pose a coastal hazard.  adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Panama

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 16 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 7January 2021]

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - the dollar-based economy rests primarily on services - operating the Panama Canal, offshore banking, and insurance; has the second most unequal income distribution in Latin America

GDP - per capita (PPP): $25,400 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

    agriculture: 17%

    industry: 18.6%

    services: 64.4% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 52 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.2 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 98.3% of population

Physicians density: 1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 89.1% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 93.4% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Panama

[accessed 24 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ 5 Facts About Poverty In Panama

~ Healthcare In Panama

~ Access To Clean Water In Panama For Indigenous Communities

~ Poverty Among Indigenous Peoples In Central America

~ 10 Facts About Life Expectancy In Panama

~ 10 Facts About Economic Development In Central America

~ Top 10 Facts About Living Conditions In Panama

~ Consumer Credit Access In Panama Continues To Expand

The World Bank in Pananma

[accessed 21 April 2021]

The World Bank is swiftly supporting the efforts of Latin America and the Caribbean to address COVID-19-related impacts, through new operations and by redirecting funds from existing projects.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 7 January 2021]

Unemployment remains in double digits, reaching 14.4% in 2001. In 2001 Panama was removed from both the United States and the OECD lists of non-cooperating countries on money laundering, having been certified as compliant with 23 of 25 Basel Core Principles by the IMF Offshore Financial Center Module II assessment in August 2001. However, in 2002 and 2003, Panama remained one of 23 countries on the US list of major illicit drug producing and/or drug transit countries.

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