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In the early years of the 21st Century


Description: Description: Description: Mongolia

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Mongolia in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather ***

In Mongolia, extreme weather conditions can be both awe-inspiring and challenging. Mongolia boasts the world’s most typical continental climate, characterized by extreme diurnal and annual temperature ranges. From November to March, average temperatures in most parts of the country hover below zero, and even in April and October, they remain close to freezing. Winter nights often plummet to a bone-chilling -40°C (which is approximately -40°F), and in some years, temperatures have dipped as low as -55°C at Lake Uvs.

Dzuds pose a Unique Challenge: Mongolia experiences a peculiar slow-onset disaster known as dzud. These extreme winters are marked by freezing temperatures, heavy snowfall, and frozen ground that prevents animals from reaching pasture. Dzuds typically follow dry summers with scant grazing, leaving livestock unable to build up the fat stores necessary for survival during the harsh winter months. These conditions can lead to significant livestock losses and impact traditional herding communities.

Over the last few decades, extreme weather events, especially those related to convective phenomena, have been on the rise in Mongolia. These include strong winds, storms, and thunderstorms. In the past decade, the number of extreme events has increased by 1.5 to 2.7 times compared to the previous three decades.  adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Mongolia

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 4 January 2021]

Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,700 (2018 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 31.1%

industry: 18.5%

services: 50.5% (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 29.6% (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 45 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.8 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 85.4% of population

Physicians density: 2.86 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 86.5% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 81.8% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Mongolia

[accessed 21 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Ulaanbaatar: Addressing Pollution In Mongolia

~ 6 Facts About Women’s Rights In Mongolia

~ 3 Ngos Dedicated To Ending Child Poverty In Mongolia

~ 5 Facts About Poverty In Mongolia

~ Anti-Poverty In Mongolia: Residents Use A Phone App To Vote

~ Poverty In Mongolia: 5 Fast Facts

~ Housing Shortage And Homelessness In Mongolia

~ 10 Facts About Healthcare In Mongolia

~ Providing Aid For The Water Crisis In Mongolia

~ The Mongolia Third-Neighbor Trade Act

The World Bank in Mongolia

[accessed 21 April 2021]

Over the past 30 years, Mongolia has transformed into a vibrant democracy, with treble the level of GDP per capita and increasing school enrollments, and dramatic declines in maternal mortality and child mortality.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 4 January 2020]

Although the economy has grown steadily since 1994, the economic wellbeing of most people is still in decline. Inflation reached a peak of over 325% in 1992, accelerating faster than wages, but dropping to about 4% in 1995. In 1999, inflation jumped to 10%, and was at 8% and 8.1% in 2000 and 2001. Development of the country's rich oil and mineral resources continues to be a high priority, and negotiations for the exploitation of oil, gold and rare earth elements with foreign companies are being actively pursued.

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