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In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Mali

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Mali in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



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*** Extreme Weather ***

Around two-thirds of Mali’s land is desert, with the northern and central regions most affected by conflict. Climate change exacerbates the challenges. Over recent years, Mali has experienced rising temperatures, impacting water availability and agriculture.

Also, erratic rainfall affecting crop yields and water sources and deadly floods and droughts which have become more frequent. Last year, floods affected 80,000 people across the country, resulting in loss of lives and livestock. In summary, Mali faces a dual crisis: conflict-induced displacement and the compounding effects of climate change.adapted from Microsoft BING Copilot

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Mali

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 3 January 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 6 January 2021]

Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,200 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 80%

industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2005 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 562 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 64 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.6 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 82.9% of population

Physicians density: 0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 54.2% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 35.1% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Mali

[accessed 18 February 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ The Impact Of Conflict On Poverty In Mali

~ Poverty In Mali: Causes, Solutions And Further Action

~ Save The Children Tackles Sanitation In Mali

~ What To Know About Healthcare In Mali

~ Agricultural Growth From Livestock Fattening In Mali

~ Saving Lives In Mali: Muso Health

~ Homelessness In Mali

~ 10 Facts About Sanitation In Mali

~ A Look At Agricultural Development In Mali

~ Myagro Aids Smallholder Farmers In Mali

Conflict, climate change, and COVID-19 drive extreme hunger

Oxfam, 9 July 2021

[accessed 19 July 2021]

The effects of conflict, COVID-19, and climate change have intensified the global hunger crisis.

WEST AFRICAN SAHEL - DRIVERS OF HUNGER: CONFLICT -- The region encompassing Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal has seen a 67 percent increase in hunger since last year. Continued violence has forced 5.3 million people to flee their homes. Insecurity has cut off farmers from their agriculture. Last year, along with the economic impact of COVID-19, the climate crisis disrupted the agricultural season, limiting stocks and people’s livelihoods.

The Sahel struggles with terror, poverty and climate change

The Arab Weekly, 18 March 2021

[accessed 18 March 2021]

Internal displacement had increased 20-fold in less than two years while the number of families facing hunger has tripled.

The United Nations warned in November of a heightened risk of famine in Burkina Faso, along with northeastern Nigeria and South Sudan and also of a high hunger risk in both Mali and Niger.

Problems have been exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic.


Action Against Hunger - Mali

[accessed 21 March 2021]

In Mali, over half of the population lives below the international poverty line. Poverty in this country stems both from geographical and social problems. Two thirds of the country is a desert or semi-desert that experience long yearly periods of drought. While vulnerable populations in these areas already suffer from chronic food insecurity, the worsening droughts make it harder for people to cope with and recover from cyclical food shortages.

Widespread poverty, food insecurity, and instability from conflict have led to alarming numbers of childhood malnutrition. Malnutrition rates exceed the critical threshold on a national level, and the Sahel region of northern Mali is in a constant state of nutrition emergency. Malnutrition is the second leading cause of death in children under age five in the country.

The World Bank in Mali

[accessed 21 April 2021]

The World Bank portfolio is supporting Mali in addressing its economic challenges with a focus on education, health, agriculture, and energy.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 3 January 2020]

About 80% of the population was engaged in agriculture as of 2001. Irrigated lands along the Niger River have been the focus of infrastructure development loans designed to increase the production of rice. Historically, livestock production was a mainstay of the Malian economy. About 10% of the population is nomadic. The dry savannah plains are tsetse free, and production has been oriented to serve the growing market in Côte d'Ivoire to the south. Unfortunately, the severe droughts in the 1980s reportedly wiped out upwards of 80% of Malian herds.

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