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In the early years of the 21st Century



Description: Description: Cuba

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Cuba in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** ARCHIVES ***

The World Factbook - Cuba

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 23 December 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 5 January 2021]

The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. More than 500,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,300 (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 18%

industry: 10%

services: 72% (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (2017 est.)

    note: data are official rates; unofficial estimates are about double

Population below poverty line: N/A

Maternal mortality rate: 36 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.2 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 97.4% of population

Physicians density: 8.3 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 95.8% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Cuba

[accessed 26 January 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Myths And Facts About Poverty In Cuba

~ Farming And Food Security In Cuba

~ Internet Connectivity In Cuba

~ Hidden Homelessness In Cuba

~ 10 Facts About Sanitation In Cuba

~ 7 Facts About Poverty In Havana

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 23 December 2020]

Between 75% and 90% of adult Cubans are still employed by the state. Jobs pay between 250 pesos and 500 pesos a month, equivalent to only $10 to $20. However, education, medical care, housing and other public services are free or highly subsidized, and there are no taxes on public jobs.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Prof. Martin Patt, "Poverty - Cuba",, [accessed <date>]