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In the early years of the 21st Century

Description: Description: Description: Canada

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Canada in the early years of the 21st Century.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false.   No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of poverty are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring the relationship between distribution of labor and per-capita GDP, for example.  Perhaps your paper could focus on life expectancy or infant mortality.  Other factors of interest might be unemployment, literacy, access to basic services, etc.  On the other hand, you might choose to include some of the possible outgrowths of poverty such as Human Trafficking, Street Children, or even Prostitution.  There is a lot to the subject of Poverty.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** Extreme Weather 2024 ***

CBC News suggests that Canada could face more record-breaking heat this year, leading to an increased risk of wildfires. Another news article by The Guardian warns of a “bitter” blast of cold Arctic air that is set to bring dangerously frigid temperatures to swaths of North America, including Canada. Finally, a news article by reports that Canada is preparing for the three costliest disasters facing the country: wildfires, floods, and earthquakes  Microsoft BING Copilot

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The World Factbook - Canada

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency CIA

[accessed 11 November 2020]

World Factbook website has moved to --->

[accessed 5 January 2021]

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital stock, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. The global economic crisis of 2007-08 moved the Canadian economy into sharp recession by late 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada’s economy posted strong growth in 2017 at 3%, but most analysts are projecting Canada’s economic growth will drop back closer to 2% in 2018.

GDP - per capita (PPP): $48,400 (2017 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2%

industry: 13%

services: 6% (2017 est.)

industry and services: 76%

manufacturing: 6% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2017 est.)

Population below poverty line: 9.4% (2008 est.)

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line

Maternal mortality rate: 10 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 83.4 years

Drinking water source: improved: total: 100% of population

Physicians density: 2.31 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access: improved: total: 100% of population

Electricity access: electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

The Borgen Project - Canada

[accessed 24 January 2021]

The Borgen Project works with U.S. leaders to utilize the United States’ platform behind efforts toward improving living conditions for the world’s poor.  It is an innovative, national campaign that is working to make poverty a focus of U.S. foreign policy.  It believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to address global poverty. From ending segregation to providing women with the right to vote, nearly every wrong ever righted in history was achieved through advocacy. The Borgen Project addresses the big picture, operating at the political level advancing policies and programs that improve living conditions for those living on less than $1 per day.

~ Programs Aiming To Curb Homelessness In Canada

~ Homeless Youth In Canada Receive Celebrity Aid

~ Working Together To Reduce Poverty In Nunavut

~ Indigenous Poverty In Canada

~ Update On Sdg Goal 1 In Canada

~ How Child Care Initiatives Improve Poverty In Canada

~ Poverty Among Canada’s Indigenous Population

~ 5 Facts About Hunger In Canada

~ Quest Food Exchange: A Model In Food Redistribution

Cape Breton advocates say child poverty numbers 'unacceptable'

Nicole Sullivan, Cape Breton Post, 13 December 2020

[accessed 14 December 2020]

THE RECOMMENDATIONS -- In 1989 a promise was made in the House of Commons to end child poverty by 2020. This hasn't happened and according to the 2020 report card, Nova Scotia is the only province or territory which hasn't seen a decrease in child and family poverty rates since 1989.

According to the report, the difference between the provincial rates are five to 6.4 per cent higher than Canada rates, compared to a difference of 3.1-4.3 per cent between 2000 - 2013.

Low-income families in Nova Scotia are so deep in poverty, the report indicates they are between $9,926 and $11,767 below the poverty line.

Tackle food insecurity with stronger income support in B.C., says poverty advocate

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) News, 6 Dec 2020

[accessed 7 December 2020]

Too many people in British Columbia have been poor for too long and the COVID-19 crisis has shone a spotlight on how the system must change, according to the spokesperson for a provincial poverty advocacy organization.

However, Ellis said simply providing those in need with food is only a Band-Aid solution and what is critically needed to enact real change is to make sure people are financially secure enough to shelter and feed themselves without continually having to rely on food banks.

The coalition is also calling for investments in affordable housing so vulnerable people living on the poverty line are not skipping meals and foregoing bill payments just to keep a roof over their heads.

There are currently about 557,000 British Columbians living below the poverty line and in some communities, one in four children do not have enough to eat.

A B.C. research project gave homeless people $7,500 each — the results were 'beautifully surprising'

Bridgette Watson, CBC News, 7 October 2020

[accessed 11 October 2020]

Participants found housing faster, boosted food security and reduced spending on substances, study found.

The New Leaf project is a joint study started in 2018 by Foundations for Social Change, a Vancouver-based charitable organization, and the University of British Columbia. After giving homeless Lower Mainland residents cash payments of $7,500, researchers checked on them over a year to see how they were faring.

All 115 participants, ranging in age between 19 and 64, had been homeless for at least six months and were not struggling with serious substance use or mental health issues. Of those, 50 people were chosen at random to be given the cash, while the others formed a control group that did not receive any money.

Not only did those who received the money spend fewer days homeless than those in the control group, they had also moved into stable housing after an average of three months, compared to those in the control group, who took an average of five months.

On average, cash recipients spent 52 per cent of their money on food and rent, 15 per cent on other items such as medications and bills, and 16 per cent on clothes and transportation.

Almost 70 per cent of people who received the payments were food secure after one month. In comparison, spending on alcohol, cigarettes and drugs went down, on average, by 39 per cent.

Can Food Waste Improve Food Insecurity?

May 1, 2018  in North America by Sonya Peres

[accessed 14 January 2021]

In fact, the United States is the world’s largest food exporter and third largest producer, while Canada is the fifth largest food exporter. Yet, in Canada, over 4 million Canadians are food insecure; in places like Nunavut, a northern territory inhabited by mainly Indigenous folk (specifically Inuit, at around 84% of the population), almost half of households suffer from food insecurity.

The World Bank in Canada

[accessed 18 April 2021]

Canada advances its ideals of stability, sustainable prosperity, and economic inclusion through its partnership with the World Bank Group. Since 1945, Canada and the Bank Group have worked together to end poverty and create a world based on sustainable development.

Looking back a few years …

Advameg, Inc., Encyclopedia of the Nations

[accessed 24 January 2021]

The Canadian economy is the seventh largest among the western industrialized nations. The post-war period has seen a steady shift from the production of agricultural goods toward increased emphasis on manufacturing and services. The service sector employed three-fourths of the workforce in 1999, compared to only half of the workforce in 1960.

Although the 1990s were marked by continued high rates of unemployment and restrained domestic spending, the economy posted an average growth rate in GDP of about 3%. Unemployment was rated at a peak of about 12% in 1992 but had gone down to 8% in 1999.

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