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Human Trafficking
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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

In the early years of the 21st Century, 2000 to 2025

Antigua & Barbuda

Antigua has a relatively high GDP per capita in comparison to most other Caribbean nations. The economy experienced solid growth from 2003 to 2007, reaching over 12% in 2006 driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing associated with the Cricket World Cup. Growth dropped off in 2008 with the end of the boom. Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Antigua&Barbuda

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Antigua & Barbuda. Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated, misleading or even false. No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.




If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspects of child prostitution are of particular interest to you. You might be interested in exploring how children got started, how they survive, and how some succeed in leaving. Perhaps your paper could focus on runaways and the abuse that led to their leaving. Other factors of interest might be poverty, rejection, drug dependence, coercion, violence, addiction, hunger, neglect, etc. On the other hand, you might choose to write about the manipulative and dangerous adults who control this activity. There is a lot to the subject of Child Prostitution. Scan other countries as well as this one. Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions. Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.

*** ARCHIVES ***

Human Rights Reports 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 10, 2020

[accessed 23 August 2020]

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN - Child pornography is illegal and subject to fines of up to $500,000 XCD ($185,000) and 20 years in prison. The minimum age for consensual sex is 16 years. There were anecdotal reports of parents and caregivers subjecting children to sex trafficking.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 3 November 2004

[accessed 24 February 2011]

64. The Committee is concerned that the Sexual Offences Act of 1995 does not afford the same protection to boys as it does to girls. The Committee is also concerned at the low rate of prosecutions of those who sexually exploit children and that there is little in the way of public campaigns to educate the population about the laws governing sexual exploitation. The Committee notes that sexual exploitation of children should be a particular and growing concern for the State party, given its heavy reliance on commercial tourism.

The Protection Project - Antigua [DOC]

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), The Johns Hopkins University

[accessed 2009]

FORMS OF TRAFFICKING Available data suggest that trafficking occurs primarily for the purpose of prostitution. Sex tourism is also part of the trafficking infrastructure in Antigua and Barbuda. There are reports of trafficking in children for commercial sexual exploitation and pornography. In 2001, the police arrested and charged four people in connection with an ongoing investigation into an alleged child prostitution and pornography ring. Girls as young as 13 were allegedly being sexually exploited. The ring was discovered after one of the girls was forced to have an abortion.

Creating International Consensus on Combating Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy, the Role of the UN, and Global Responses and Challenges [PDF]

Linda Smith and Mohamed Mattar, The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs Vol.28:I, Winter 2004

[accessed 19 September 2011]


[page 162] ACKNOWLEDGING CHILD PORNOGRAPHY AS A FORM OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION - Incidents of pornography, specifically child pornography, are largely cited in conjunction with prostitution or under the general guise of sex tourism, and are rarely addressed as a separate phenomenon in discussions of trafficking. This seems to arise out of the fact that pornography often accompanies other commercial sexual exploitation. Pornography is, however, a lucrative industry that has proliferated widely in some areas, such as countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, with the aid of the Internet and the growth of sex tourism in the region. Pornography also represents another layer of exploitation, which victims trapped in the sex industry are often forced to endure. In many cases, women and girls are videotaped without their consent and the profits from the sales of such videotapes are kept entirely by the pimps and brothel owners. Children as young as 13 years old were found in a pornography and prostitution ring in Antigua and Barbuda ....




Human Rights Reports 2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, February 25, 2009

[accessed 17 March 2020]

CHILDREN - Child abuse remained a problem. The press reported regularly on the rape and sexual abuse of children. Adult men having regular sexual relations with young girls was also a problem. According to one regional human rights group, the girls were often the daughters of single mothers with whom the perpetrators also had regular sexual relations.

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