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Torture by Police, Forced Disappearance

& Other Ill Treatment

In the early years of the 21st Century                                                                            gvnet.com/torture/Russia.htm

Russian Federation (Russia)

Russia ended 2008 with GDP growth of 6.0%, following 10 straight years of growth averaging 7% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. Over the last six years, fixed capital investment growth and personal income growth have averaged above 10%, but both grew at slower rates in 2008. Growth in 2008 was driven largely by non-tradable services and domestic manufacturing, rather than exports. During the past decade, poverty and unemployment declined steadily and the middle class continued to expand.

In mid-November, mini-devaluations of the currency by the Central Bank caused increased

Description: Description: Description: Description: Russia

capital flight and froze domestic credit markets, resulting in growing unemployment, wage arrears, and a severe drop in production.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

CAUTION:  The following links have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Russia.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.

*** ARCHIVES ***

Anapa police dept investigators refused to initiate case about tortures

Crime Russia, 07 November 2017

en.crimerussia.com/gromkie-dela/investigators-refused-to-initiate-case-about-tortures-in-anapa-police-dept-11-times/

[accessed 9 November 2017]

Artem was detained in December 2015 on suspicion of a robbery attack on a sales representative, who supplied tobacco products to a self-employed individual Arustamyan.

“[After putting a gas mask, they began to] inflict blows all over my body, saying that I should repent, and then they will stop beating me. But I had nothing to repent of, since I did not commit the alleged crime. Then one of the police officer took some metal object and began to strike multiple blows to my feet. At the same time, there was loud music playing in the office. I can’t recall what it was, I think it was radio playing. There was a persistent smell of alcohol; I sensed it when they removed the bag off of my head. They said “the sooner you tell the truth, the sooner it will stop.” I said I didn’t know anything, so they began to beat me with their feet, jump on my back with their knees, and beat my feet with a stick. When it dawned on them that I wouldn’t say anything, they said “now it’s time for the lie detector.” At first, I was relieved, but then I realized it was not what I thought,” Ponomarchuk said.

Instead of the lie detector, they began to electrocute the detainee. The terminals were attached to the whole body, causing a terrible pain. But this was not enough for the policemen. After the electric shock torture, law enforcers wrapped a rubber baton with scotch tape, smeared with gel, and inserted him into the anus. The pain was so strong that the young man lost consciousness. When he woke up, he had no other choice but to confess to the crime and sign all the necessary documents. At the suggestion of the operatives, he signed a protocol on administrative violation — allegedly, the man had been walking along the street and refused to show documents to police officers who stopped him (Disobedience to the lawful order of an employee, Art. 19.3 of the Russian Code of Administrative Offences). After that, he was transferred to a cell for administratively detained persons.

Nizhnekamsk: 3 policemen detained after young man killed himself due to torture

Crime Russia, 02 November 2017

https://en.crimerussia.com/gromkie-dela/nizhnekamsk-3-policemen-detained-after-young-man-killed-himself-due-to-torture/

[accessed 3 November 2017]

The police officers are accused of the torture of 22-year-old Nizhnekamsk resident Ilnaz Pirkin, after which he threw himself off the roof of a high-rise building on the city’s outskirts.

Before his death, the young man called his girlfriend and parents, asking them to find his phone. Pirkin used it to record his suicide message, in which he said that the police forced him to confess to a series of car batteries thefts. According to him, on the night of October 19, the police officers apprehended him outside of his parents' house, took him to the woods, and beat him. After this, the young man was taken to the police department, where he was tortured; the officers used the ‘elephant’ method, when a gas mask is put on the victim, blocking the air.

On the video, Pirkin says that he wants to “achieve justice” with his action and prevent anything like this from happening in the future:

How to hide evidence of torture inside Russia’s prison system

Anastasia Zotova, openDemocracy, 17 October 2017

www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/anastasia-zotova/stop-torture-in-russian-prisons

[accessed 26 October 2017]

One recent example of this took place in the Bryansk region. In July 2017, we received a collective letter from several dozen inmates of Colony IK-1, stating that they had been subjected to physical abuse by prison staff. Some of them, we were told, were forced to do the splits, and had paper bags put on their heads and their mouths taped up. All this is, not surprisingly, illegal. Here’s an excerpt from one of the prisoners’ letters:

 “They made us stand with our faces to the wall and started hitting us on our bodies and legs. They formed two lines and ordered us to run between them to the toilet block, with our arms behind our backs and our heads bent. Then they beat us as we ran. When we got to the toilets, they shaved us — our heads, our beards. I’m bald, so they shaved off my eyebrows. After the shaving, we had to run back. Then they brought a bucket of water in and made us wash the floor with our clothes, and after that the stood us against the wall and started beating us on the legs again.”

We immediately attempted to send lawyers into this prison, but none of them were allowed near the prisoners for more than two weeks. (This is absolutely against Russian law.) And when they were eventually let in, many of the complainants refused to testify about the torture. Only six men (out of more than 50 initial complainants) made statements about the illegal physical abuse they had suffered.

Gay Russian speaks out on police torture in Chechnya

Olga Rotenberg, Agence France-Presse AFP, 16 October 2017

www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/gay-russian-speaks-out-on-police-torture-in-chechnya/ar-AAtA5Kr

[accessed 26 October 2017]

Lapunov described being thrown into a cell drenched in blood.

"The cell was around two by two metres and about a quarter of the floor was just covered in blood -- it was quite fresh blood," he said.   He believed he would be killed.   "Based on their words and their actions, I thought that after a certain time they would kill me in any case."

Hours after his detention, police began beating him.   "They started beating me with sticks. I don't know how long it took but a very long time," he said.   "They hit me on the calves, they put my face to a wall and beat me on the legs, thighs, buttocks and back, until I started to fall."

Lapunov gave a news conference at Novaya Gazeta, an opposition newspaper which first reported that Chechen authorities were imprisoning and torturing gay men.

“They Have Long Arms and They Can Find Me” -- Anti-Gay Purge by Local Authorities in Russia’s Chechen Republic

Nataliya Vasilyeva, Human Rights Watch, 26 May 2017

www.hrw.org/report/2017/05/26/they-have-long-arms-and-they-can-find-me/anti-gay-purge-local-authorities-russias

[accessed 4 November 2017]

In February 2017, Chechnya’s law enforcement and security officials launched an anti-gay purge. They rounded up dozens of men on suspicion of being gay, held them in unofficial detention facilities for days, humiliated, starved, and tortured them. They forcibly disappeared some of the men. Others were returned to their families barely alive from beatings. Their captors exposed them to their families as gay and encouraged their relatives to carry out honor killings. Although Chechnya’s leader, Ramzan Kadyrov has denied the round-ups, the information presented in this report shows that top-level local authorities in Chechnya sanctioned them. Russia’s federal government has pledged to investigate, but intense and well-founded fear of official retaliation and honor killings, and overwhelming stigma will prevent many victims from coming forward.

This report documents the violent purge and the local and federal government’s response. It is based on interviews with men who had been rounded up, as well as with journalists who documented the round-ups and with representatives of a Russian LGBT organization who have helped these men and documented their ordeals.

Torture in the Russian Federation

International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (irct)

Developed in collaboration with the Interregional Non-governmental Organization “Committee Against Torture” (INGO CAT), June 2014

www.irct.org/Admin/Public/DWSDownload.aspx?File=%2fFiles%2fFiler%2fpublications%2fCountry+factsheets%2fCF+Russia+-+PUBLIC+EDIT+pdf.pdf

[accessed 23 June 2015]

The inadequate definition of torture in national law, which is not in line with United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT), leads to victims facing difficulties in accessing legal help. Compounding this is a lack of independence of the prosecution and judiciary, leading to impunity. There are no state programs of rehabilitation for victims of torture and there is no definition of a torture victim.

Office of Russian Anti-Torture NGO Attacked in Chechen Capital

The Moscow Times, 3 June 2015

www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/office-of-russian-anti-torture-ngo-attacked-in-chechen-capital/522955.html

[accessed 21 June 2015]

themoscowtimes.com/articles/office-of-russian-anti-torture-ngo-attacked-in-chechen-capital-47085

[accessed 1 August 2017]

Masked men stormed the Grozny office of the Committee Against Torture, a prominent human rights NGO, on Wednesday morning, the organization said via its Twitter account.

The Committee Against Torture wrote on its official Twitter page Wednesday that masked men had vandalized its vehicle and broke down the door to its office. Other members of a mob that had gathered near the office climbed onto its balcony and tried to break a window, the NGO said.

The men vandalized the office as the organization's employees escaped through a window.

No police units were dispatched to the scene, according to the Committee Against Torture.

The Committee Against Torture was founded in 2000 by rights activists from the city of Nizhny Novgorod and monitors cases of torture and violent treatment in Russia. The organization also offers legal and medical support to victims of torture.

Committee Against Torture is recognized as victim in arson case

Vestnik Kavkaza, 15 March 2015

vestnikkavkaza.net/news/society/67905.html

[accessed 30 March 2015]

The NGO "Committee Against Torture" has been recognized as a victim in a criminal investigation into an arson attack on the office of the Joint Mobile Group in the capital of Chechnya, Grozny.

The arson attack took place in December 2012. The attack caused the Committee Against Torture damage estimated at approximately 260 thousand rubles.

Eight Ex-Officers In Tatarstan Sentenced In High-Profile Torture Case

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty RFE/RL, 16 June 2014

www.rferl.org/content/eight-ex-officers-in-tatarstan-sentenced-in-high-profile-torture-case/25423704.html

[accessed 17 June 2014]

Eight former police officers in Russia's Republic of Tatarstan have been sentenced to prison terms of between two and 15 years in a high-profile torture case.   A court on June 16 found the eight defendants guilty of abuse of power and inflicting bodily injury that led to death.

A probe against the eight officers was launched in 2012 after the death of a suspect arrested by police in Kazan for alleged hooliganism.   Before his death in hospital, the man told doctors that police had tortured him and raped him with a bottle.

Witness in Trial Against Former Makhachkala Mayor Alleges Torture

Matthew Bodner, The Moscow Times, Issue 5306, 10 February 2014

www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/witness-in-trial-against-former-makhachkala-mayor-alleges-torture/494169.html

[accessed 11 Feb 2014]

The key witness in the trial against former Makhachkala mayor Said Amirov says he was coerced in to giving false testimony by the Federal Security Service, one of Amirov's defense lawyers told Ekho Moskvy.

Statements made by the witness, Magomed Abdulgalimov, in which he claims to have been subjected to electroshock torture by FSB officers were provided to Amirov's former defense attorney, Vladimir Postanyuk said.

Russian prisons are essentially torture chambers

Emma Wallis, Deutsche Welle DW-WORLD.DE, 22 November 2013

dw.de/p/1AMVh

[accessed 23 Nov 2013]

I don't think that you can influence Russia's judicial system, or the federal penitentiary system from the outside very much at all. Nothing can be changed until you start arresting the people who work in the system. For torture, verbal abuse, rape, battery … for planting illegal drugs, explosives and weapons on people and putting them away. Until you start putting these people behind bars in Russia, any reforms of the penal system in Russia will be impossible. It's very important for these things to be voiced, written, spoken about, because we are seeing that public opinion can be changed.

23rd General Report of the CPT - European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment - 1 August 2012 - 31 July 2013

Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 6 November 2013

www.west-info.eu/files/Council-of-Europe-23rd-General-Report-of-the-CPT-20131.pdf

[accessed 7 Nov 2013]

[Dagestan]

55. A significant proportion of the detained persons interviewed by the CPT’s delegation made allegations of recent ill-treatment by law enforcement officials.

The ill-treatment alleged was frequently of such severity as to amount to torture (e.g. electric shocks, asphyxiation with a gas mask); this was particularly the case in the Republic of Dagestan and the Chechen Republic, although some very serious allegations were also received in North Ossetia-Alania. In the vast majority of cases, the torture/severe ill-treatment was said to have been inflicted at the time of questioning by operational officers, either during the initial period of deprivation of liberty or (and) during periods when remand prisoners were returned to the custody of law enforcement agencies for further investigative purposes. In a considerable number of cases, the delegation gathered medical evidence that was fully consistent with recent torture or other forms of severe ill-treatment; a selection of individual cases is given in the CPT’s report in respect of each of the three Republics visited.

The state of the world's human rights

Amnesty International AI, Annual Report 2013

www.amnesty.org/en/region/russia/report-2013

[accessed 3 March 2014]

TORTURE AND OTHER ILL-TREATMENT

Allegations of torture and other ill-treatment remained widely reported and effective investigations were rare. Law enforcement officials allegedly frequently circumvented the existing legal safeguards against torture through, among other things: the use of secret detention (particularly in the North Caucasus); the use of force supposedly to restrain violent detainees; investigators denying access to a lawyer of one’s choice and favouring specific state-appointed lawyers who were known to ignore signs of torture.

In March, one torture case in Kazan was widely reported in the media after a man died of internal injuries in hospital. He claimed that he had been raped with a bottle at the police station. Several police officers were arrested and charged with abuse of power, and two were later sentenced to two and two-and-a-half years’ imprisonment respectively. Many more allegations of torture by police in Kazan and elsewhere followed media reports of this case. In response to an NGO initiative, the Head of the Investigative Committee decreed to create special departments to investigate crimes committed by law enforcement officials. However, the initiative was undermined by the failure to provide these departments with adequate staff resources.

NORTH CAUCASUS

Rustam Aushev, a 23-year-old resident of Ingushetia, was last seen on 17 February at Mineralnye Vody railway station in the neighbouring Stavropol region. The next day, his relative spoke to staff at the station. They reported seeing a young man being detained by plain-clothes men and driven away in a Gazelle minivan, which was also captured on CCTV. A security guard had reportedly spoken to the minivan’s driver asking it to be parked in the designated area, and was shown an FSB official’s ID. Rustam Aushev’s family reported these details to the authorities and demanded an investigation, but his fate and whereabouts were unknown at the end of the year.

In Ingushetia, the first ever trial of two former police officials concluded in Karabulak. Some charges related to the secret detention and torture of Zelimkhan Chitigov although the officials faced other charges as well. The announcement of the verdict was postponed repeatedly for almost three months, and on 7 November the judge sentenced one defendant to eight years’ imprisonment, and fully acquitted the other, his former superior. Allegations of intimidation of victims and witnesses had persisted throughout the trial, during which both defendants remained at large. No other perpetrators were identified despite Zelimkhan Chitigov naming at least one other official by name and alleging that many others had been involved in the incessant bouts of torture during the three days he was kept in secret detention.

Conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture

U.N. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment  -- Doc. CAT/C/RUS/CO/4 (2007)

www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cat/observations/russia2007.html

[accessed 5 March 2013]

Safeguards for detainees

Laws and practices that obstruct access to lawyers and relatives of suspects and accused persons, thus providing insufficient safeguards for detainees, include:

Internal regulations of temporary facilities i.e. IVS (temporary police detention) and SIZOs (pre-trial establishments), failures of the courts to order investigations into allegations that evidence has been obtained through torture, as well as reported reprisals against defence lawyers alleging that their client has been tortured or otherwise ill-treated, and which appear to facilitate torture and ill-treatment;

The possibility of restricting access to relatives of suspects in the interest of the secrecy of the investigations provided for in article 96 of the Code of Criminal Procedure;

The Law on Operative-Search Activity, as well as the federal Law No. 18-FZ of 22 April 2004, amending article 99 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, according to which suspects of “terrorism” may be detained for up to 30 days without being charged;

The reported practice of detention of criminal suspects on administrative charges, under which detainees are deprived of procedural guarantees.

Widespread use of torture

The Committee is concerned at:

The particularly numerous, ongoing and consistent allegations of acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment committed by law enforcement personnel, including in police custody;

The law enforcement promotion system based on the number of crimes solved, which appears to create conditions that promote the use of torture and ill-treatment with a view to obtaining confessions;

The information of the State party that representatives of international organizations other than the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture can talk to prisoners only when accompanied by representatives of the administration.

Investigations and impunity

The insufficient level of independence of the Procuracy, in particular due to the problems posed by the dual responsibility of the Procuracy for prosecution and oversight of the proper conduct of investigations,  and the failure to initiate and conduct prompt, impartial and effective investigations into allegations of torture or ill-treatment.

Use of evidence obtained through torture

While the Code of Criminal Procedure states that evidence obtained by torture shall be inadmissible, in practice there appear to be no instruction to the courts to rule that the evidence is inadmissible, or to order an immediate, impartial and effective investigation.

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61671.htm

[accessed 11 February 2013]

TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN, OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT – The law prohibits such practices; however, there were credible reports that law enforcement personnel frequently engaged in torture, violence, and other brutal or humiliating treatment or punishment to coerce confessions from suspects and that the government did not consistently hold officials accountable for such actions. Although prohibited in the constitution, torture is defined neither in the law nor the criminal code. As a result, the only accusation prosecutors could bring against police suspected of such behavior was that they exceeded their authority or committed a simple assault.

Cases of physical abuse by police officers usually occurred within the first few hours or days of arrest. Some of the methods reportedly used were: beatings with fists, batons, or other objects; asphyxiation using gas masks or bags (at times filled with mace); electric shocks; or suspension by body parts (for example, suspending a victim from the wrists, which are tied together behind the back). Allegations of abuse were difficult to substantiate because of limited access by medical professionals. There were credible reports that both government forces and Chechen fighters in Chechnya tortured detainees (see section 1.g.).

Reports by refugees, NGOs, and the press suggested a pattern of police beatings, arrests, and extortion directed at persons with dark skin or who appeared to be from the Caucasus, Central Asia, or Africa, and at Roma. For example in June 2004 the press reported that in Novosibirsk 4 policemen were arrested on suspicion of extorting over $1 million (28 million rubles) from a Romani family by kidnapping and torturing family members until their demands were met. The policemen were reportedly later tried and convicted.

Freedom House Country Report - Political Rights: 6   Civil Liberties: 5   Status: Not  Free

2009 Edition

www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2009/russia

[accessed 11 February 2013]

Critics charge that Russia has failed to address ongoing criminal justice problems, such as poor prison conditions and law enforcement officials’ widespread use of illegal detention and torture to extract confessions. In some cases, there has also been a return to the Soviet-era practices of punitive psychiatry.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES. 

Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Torture by Police, Forced Disappearance & Other Ill Treatment in the early years of the 21st Century- Russia", http://gvnet.com/torture/Russia.htm, [accessed <date>]

 

 

Torture in  [Russia]  [other countries]
Human Trafficking in  [Russia]  [other countries]
Street Children in  [Russia]  [other countries]
Child Prostitution in  [Russia]  [other countries]