[ Human Trafficking, Country-by-Country ]
NEPAL (Tier 2) – Extracted in part from the U.S. State Dept
2023 TIP Report
The Government of Nepal does
not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but
is making significant efforts to do so. The government
demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared with the previous
reporting period, considering the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, if any,
on its anti-trafficking capacity; therefore Nepal remained on Tier 2.
These efforts included increasing investigations and identifying more
trafficking victims. Nepal’s Anti-Human Trafficking Bureau
(AHTB) developed a training manual for investigating trafficking
crimes. In addition, the government introduced a new policy to allow
previously unregistered migrant workers to regain legal registration to
work abroad. However, the government did not meet the minimum
standards in several key areas. The government’s laws do not criminalize
all forms of labor trafficking and sex trafficking, and the government did
not finalize its long-pending draft amendments. The government
convicted fewer traffickers and concerns continued about official
complicity in trafficking crimes. The government did not finalize
pending SOPs for victim identification and did not report if any identified
victims were referred to services. Officials’ identification
of, and protection for, male trafficking victims and transnational labor
trafficking victims remained inadequate. The government continued to
allow Nepali migrant workers to pay recruitment fees and related expenses
with few measures to protect migrants from exploitation.
the Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act (HTTCA) to
criminalize all forms of sex trafficking and labor trafficking, in line
with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol; implement victim-witness protection
provisions; and remove a provision that allows the judiciary to fine
victims if they fail to appear in court.
investigations and prosecutions, including allegedly complicit officials,
and seek adequate penalties for convicted traffickers, which should involve
significant prison terms.
Local Coordination Committees on Human Trafficking (LCCHTs) in all
SOPs for law enforcement to investigate human trafficking cases, including
referrals between agencies.
SOPs for victim identification while training front-line responders to
increase referrals of trafficking victims to services.
availability and capacity of victim care, including shelter and
repatriation, for all victims, especially men and boys and workers
staff, training, and resources to the Department of Foreign Employment (DoFE) to facilitate full implementation and monitoring
of the low-cost recruitment policy, and take steps to eliminate recruitment
or placement fees charged to workers by Nepali labor recruiters.
destination country governments to create rights-based, enforceable
agreements that protect Nepali workers from human trafficking.
enforce strong regulations and oversight of labor recruitment agencies and
sub-agents, and hold fraudulent labor recruiters criminally
increase monitoring of children’s homes and orphanages and hold
accountable those that do not meet the government’s minimum standards
documentation to stateless individuals, internationally-recognized refugees, and
asylum-seekers to allow them to work, attend school, and access social