Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Lecture Resources


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Progress Needed



Ireland named as major route for child trafficking, September 04 2007

[accessed 14 February 2011]

Ireland has been pinpointed as a major route for trafficking children doomed to a life of slavery or prostitution in Britain.  An official report from the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) explicitly names Ireland as a route for bringing illicit human cargo into the UK.




Draft Information Note on Human Trafficking

Irish Refugee Council, 5 May 2006

[accessed 30 August 2012]

[scroll down]

THE IRISH CONTEXT - INVESTIGATION - In Ireland neither the Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking Act) 2000 nor the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 has ever resulted in a successful prosecution for the crime of trafficking, though individuals have been arrested and charged. This is in contrast to other countries which have had successful prosecutions. There were approximately 7,000 prosecutions in some 20 countries and 3,000 convictions. Unfortunately many countries, including Ireland, do not have strong legislation to allow for successful convictions




Israeli women being trafficked abroad

The Jerusalem Post, 03/13/2007

[accessed 14 February 2011]

While police have struggled to cope with the growing problem of human trafficking through Israel, human traffickers have begun to ship Israeli women to foreign countries, said MK Zehava Gal-On Tuesday. Gal-On also said that the country is unprepared for this new trend.

"There has long been an active ring of people using Israel as a stopping point in the trafficking of women from foreign countries to other foreign countries… what we are seeing now is Israeli women themselves being targeted and shipped to other places," Gal-On said.




Human trafficking report: Courts are too lenient

Dan Izenberg, Jerusalem Post, Apr. 11, 2007

[accessed 14 February 2011]

[accessed 31 January 2018]

The Hotline for Migrant Workers also reported that the courts did not sufficiently exercise the right to extract compensation from the traffickers for their victims. The court awarded compensation in only 11 of the 17 trafficking convictions in 2006 for a total of NIS 314,000, which was NIS 18,500 less than the previous year.  The courts also do not make sufficient use of their powers to fine traffickers or seize their property, the report stated.




Women trafficking to Israel drops sharply

Yael Branovsky, Israel News, 11.11.2007,7340,L-3470269,00.html

[accessed 14 February 2011]

The smuggling of women for prostitution and of drugs from Egypt into Israel has dramatically declined since the IDF has taken over the border nine months ago.

The report stated that no women were caught being smuggled into Israel to serve as prostitutes in the last nine months, but head of the shelter for victims of women trafficking in Israel Ruth Davidovich claimed that some 30 women were currently staying at the shelter, and that most of them were smuggled through the Egyptian border.

The report stressed that despite Israel's substantial efforts, the border remained volatile, with smugglers becoming more sophisticated and using more technologically advanced methods.




A Legal Analysis of Trafficking in Persons Cases in Kosovo [PDF]

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, The Department Of Human Rights, Decentralization, And Communities, Legal System Monitoring Section, October 2007

[accessed 28 August 2011]

[page 3] EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - The problem of trafficking in human beings (“trafficking”) continues to be a major human rights concern in Kosovo.

In cases monitored by the OSCE, victims did not receive the basic guarantees provided by law, and frequently faced prosecution or the threat of prosecution. Witness protection measures were rarely used, despite the regular intimidation of victims. Moreover, judges and prosecutors often failed to understand the legal definition of the crime of trafficking, or permit perpetrators to go unpunished.  In summary, the OSCE observed that authorities involved in the investigation and prosecution of alleged traffickers fail to adopt a victim-centred approach, or to ensure that perpetrators face justice.




Awareness of Human Trafficking Among Young People in Latvia

Alison Y. Boak, Kenneth W. Griffin, Debra Jones & Vita Karklina -- 29th Annual Conference, Global Health in Times of Crisis, 28-31 May 2002

[accessed 17 April 2012]

CONCLUSIONS - While youth in Latvia are largely aware of human trafficking, most don't believe it really happens in Latvia. Furthermore, while the majority of youth are interested in working abroad, many don't know how to take basic precautions to ensure their safety. These findings suggest that awareness of the reality of trafficking needs to be raised among youth in Latvia and that young people need instruction on how to take appropriate precautions if they seek to work abroad.



New Zealand

Child Trafficking

New Zealand Ministry of Justice - published before October 2003 by the Dept of Courts & the previous Ministry of Justice

[accessed 23 February 2011]

CHILD TRAFFICKING TO NEW ZEALAND - While trafficking to New Zealand may be a relatively small problem, organisations such as the Human Rights Commission and the Police acknowledge that it has the potential to become a growing problem. Throughout the world the trafficking of people from socio-economically deprived circumstances has increased markedly.

The New Zealand Police estimate that there are over 500 Thai women in the sex industry in Auckland alone. However, it is impossible to determine how many of them are under 18 years of age, and thus, inherently able to be considered to have been victims of trafficking. There are many obstacles that prevent trafficked children from coming to the attention of the police or other authorities. The majority of the girls are under constant surveillance by their traffickers. In addition, they may fear the police or believe that they will be in trouble with New Zealand authorities. The Human Rights Commission has received a number of telephone calls from health personnel reporting incidents of Thai girls, under 18 years of age, seeking medical attention, who had been subjected to sexual violence. However, by the time the Police have become involved it has been discovered that the addresses given are false or the girls have been moved to a new location.




Africa: Slavery lives on

Liesl Louw, News24, 2 September 2004

[accessed 12 March 2011]

[accessed 13 June 2017]

Last year, the Niger government eventually passed a law banning slavery outright. Under this law, a slavery conviction caries a ten-year prison term or a 1m CFA franc (about R10 000) fine.  But tremendous poverty, illiteracy and desperate circumstances in which many people live make it virtually impossible to eradicate slavery.




Call for residency for human trafficking victims

Norwegian Church Aid NCA, 10 November 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 9 September 2011]

“It’s all well and good that our legal system takes human trafficking seriously,” said Atle Sommerfeldt, General Secretary of Norwegian Church Aid, in a statement released yesterday. But he questioned whether Norwegian authorities are doing enough to protect girls who dare to testify in such cases.

“I understand that the authorities cannot automatically grant full residency to everyone, but in cases such as this, witnesses need to be protected, and we should allow these women at least temporary residence in Norway,” he continued.




Trafficking Of Women And Children

Judge Nimfa Cuesta Vilches, ExpertLaw Library, January, 2004

[accessed 12 February 2018]

A girl child in the Philippines is discriminated upon early in life due to culture-based and family reinforced gender biases. For instance, despite her special nutritional needs in preparation as future mother and nurturer, the girl child is allotted less food than her father and her brothers. When money for education is scarce, her brothers are given the preference.

The Filipino girl child takes the stereotyped role of her mother who is portrayed as an abused and submissive woman relegated to domestic work. Moreover, the public considers girls and women as sex objects and typifies them as club/bar entertainers, beauty pageant contestants, and racy or pornographic film stars.

The pejorative expectations that Filipino society has on women and children are compounded by problems of extreme poverty; massive labor export; globalization; porous borders; aggressive tourism campaigns; negative portrayal of women by mass media; pornography on-line and internet chat-rooms; the practice of mail-order brides; inter-country adoption; and joint military exercises in the country with visiting forces from abroad. These factors cause women to become easy victims of sex-trafficking and other forms of sexual exploitation either in the Philippines or in countries of destination.

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