Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Lecture Resources

 

[Lecture Resources | Resources for Teachers | Country-by-Country Reports ]

Prevention

 

*** FEATURED ARTICLES ***

Malawi

Human trafficking is a reality in Malawi

South African Migration Project SAMP, Queen's University (Canada), Daily Times, 2006-08-25

www.queensu.ca/samp/migrationnews/article.php?Mig_News_ID=3559&Mig_News_Issue=20&Mig_News_Cat=5

[accessed 19 February 2011]

In order to combat the multifaceted problem of human trafficking, interventions must be multi-disciplinary and multi sectoral. They must among others include; the legal sector -implementing all international human rights conventions and treaties, developing regional and bilateral MOU’s with neighbouring countries on prevention and detection of trafficking, strengthening the national legal framework through the development of specific anti-trafficking laws and regulations, and strengthening law enforcement through active prosecution of trafficking offenders.

Also the social welfare and health sector -improving access to high quality and appropriate social and protection services for trafficking victims, providing health services to those infected with diseases etc; community based initiatives - supporting small income-generating projects in village communities; gender mainstreaming- raising awareness about gender sensitivity within the court systems, and among police and other law enforcement officials, as well as raising awareness on the issues throughout the general public;

And the education sector - increasing awareness about human trafficking by providing education for all. Improving the existing educational systems and ensure vocational and technical education structures and mechanisms accessible to out of school youth. Provide relevant education and training for labour markets, particularly to youth in areas of high mobility and/or vulnerable groups; the migration sector - strengthening cross-border initiatives, enhancing the number and quality of repatriation programmes, improving situation of trafficked victims in receiving country (avoiding detention and expulsion of victims), focusing on key factors which leads to the migration to neighbouring countries; and the labour sector - improving job opportunities and strengthening national labour laws. All these must be included to combat the multifaceted problem of human trafficking.

 

 

*** ARCHIVES ***

Armenia

Russian Police ‘Helping Stop Human Trafficking From Armenia’

Karine Kalantarian, Radio Free Europe /Radio Liberty, July 2, 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 3 September 2011]

Growing cooperation between Russian and Armenian law-enforcement bodies has prevented more than one hundred Armenian women from being trafficked abroad for sexual exploitation, Russia’s Interior Minister Rashid Nurgaliev said on Friday.  Nurgaliev said “criminal groups” neutralized in joint Russian-Armenian police operations planned to transport the mostly young women to third countries, mainly the United Arab Emirates, via Russia. He revealed that members of one such group, allegedly intent on forcing six Armenians into prostitution in the Gulf state, were arrested as recently as on June 24. He did not give details.

 

 

Belarus

Preventing, Fighting and Addressing the Social Consequences of Trafficking in Human Beings in the Republic of Belarus

European Union, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2009

www.trafik.by/en/about_the_project/general_information/

[accessed 22 January 2011]

The joint project of the European Union, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF) “Preventing, Fighting and Addressing the Social Consequences of Trafficking in Human Beings in the Republic of Belarus seeks to enhance the national capacities of Belarus in fighting trafficking in human beings with preventive measures and better protection and rehabilitation of victims of trafficking.

In particular, the project aims to:

  • extend the national network of institutions rendering protection and reintegration services to victims of trafficking in human beings;
  • scale up advocacy and raise awareness about trafficking in human beings among at-risk groups and the general public;
  • enhance capacity of the law-enforcement agencies in prosecution of traffickers;
  • improve coordination and information-sharing among responsible state agencies and NGOs;
  • contribute to generating part-time and long-term employment for women and young people to eliminate the socio-economic causes of human trafficking.

 

 

Belarus

Slavery and Belarus

Anna Volk, Tech Central Station TCS Daily,, 08/23/2005 – Source: www.techcentralstation.com/082305D.html

www.ideasinactiontv.com/tcs_daily/2005/08/slavery-and-belarus.html

[accessed 13 June 2013]

Early in 2004, during a trip from his presidential palace to his residence, the Belarusian president, Alexander Lukashenko, decided there were too many faces of foreign women and girls on billboards. As a "preventive" step against human trafficking, he signed a decree that requires companies to use only Belarusian faces in their advertising. This is supposed to help more young Belarusian women get more modeling jobs in the country, instead of going abroad, where they may suffer an increased risk of being "trafficked".

 

 

Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands

Research based on case studies of victims of trafficking in human beings in 3 EU Member States, i.e. Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands [PDF]

Commission of the European Communities, DG Justice & Home Affairs, Hippokrates JAI/2001/HIP/023

Bruno Moens, Country Report, Belgium

Isabella Orfano, et.al., Country Report, Italy

Ruth Hopkins and Jan Nijboer. Country Report, The Netherlands

www.childtrafficking.com/Docs/payoke_on_the_road_de_rode_.pdf

[accessed 22 January 2011]

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 9 September 2011]

biblio.ugent.be/publication/216832

[accessed 28 May 2017]

[page 397]  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - This project was carried out in Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands concerning trafficking for the purposes of sexual and/or labour exploitation in countries other than the origin as well as victims of smuggling. The outset of the project was: to identify the practices and mechanisms of transnational crime related to trafficking, to contribute towards recommendations policy and to defines durable solutions for preventing and combating THB.

General recommendations are provided in 14 clusters. However, in each country report, the researchers offer an assessment of national laws and policies on THB as well as their assistance programs.

 

 

Bolivia

Annual Report Of Activities By The Anti-Trafficking In Persons Section Of The Organization Of American States - April 2005 To March 2006 [DOC]

Organization of American States, Inter-American Commission of Women, 27 March 2006

scm.oas.org/doc_public/ENGLISH/HIST_06/MJ00334E08.DOC

[accessed 5 September 2014]

BOLIVIA - The Prevention of Trafficking of Women and Children Project was carried out in Bolivia, during October, in conjunction with the International Organization for Migration. This project involved a prevention campaign carried by the mass media, including television and radio, for which public service announcements were produced in the Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani languages.

Between October 17 and 21, a series of seminars, focusing on different topics, were held in the cities of Trinidad, La Paz, and Cochabamba. La Paz hosted a seminar on “Training for Journalists from the Bolivian Media in Trafficking in Persons: Reporting and Spreading the News while Upholding Victims’ Rights,” at which communicators, journalists, and owners of media outlets (written press, radio, and television) involved with the topic or who had produced important work relating to it, were given training relating to trafficking in human lives. In Cochabamba the seminar focused on preventing the trafficking of children and adolescents from the most representative sectors of Bolivian society, and involved youth and children’s organizations and leaders at the local, departmental, and national levels. Finally, the seminar “Training for Government and Civil Society Authorities in Combating trafficking in Persons, Particularly Women” was held in the city of Trinidad. This seminar assisted departmental authorities from Beni, Pando, and Santa Cruz, along with representative sectors of civil society and women leaders.

 

 

Burkina Faso

NGOs Work To Eradicate Human Trafficking, Help Victims

U.S. Department of State, Washington DC, June 12, 2007

presszoom.com/story_134115.html

[accessed 24 January 2011]

PREVENTING HUMAN TRAFFICKING - The anti-trafficking network in Burkina Faso includes representatives of truckers' unions, security forces and social action and religious groups who identify and report suspected trafficking situations.

 

 

China

Program Launched To Stem Kidnapping Of Girls

Xinhua News Agency, Nanjing, Feb. 4, 2005

news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-02/04/content_2547796.htm

[accessed 29 January 2011]

english.sina.com/china/1/2005/0204/20586.html

[accessed 11 July 2017]

The new program is intended to spread the experience gained in another similar ILO-financed project designed to fight human trafficking in Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam carried out between February 2002 and May 2003, according to Bai Zhiying, chairwoman of the Jiangsu Provincial Women's Association.

With migrant females between 12 and 24 as the target group, thenew program is aimed at building a cooperation mechanism with a diverse participation on prevention of kidnapping women and children via comprehensive measures and actions, and to reduce and eventually wipe out cases of forced labor or kidnapping of girls and young women among the migrant population, said Bai..

 

 

Colombia

IOM press briefing notes 10 Aug 2004: Sudan, Colombia

Spokesperson: Jean Philippe Chauzy, International Organization for Migration IOM, 10 August 2004

reliefweb.int/node/152024

[accessed 30 January 2011]

COLOMBIA - WORKSHOP TO PREVENT THE FORCED RECRUITMENT OF MINORS - IOM Bogota has carried out the first of a series of training workshops for government officials, UN agencies such as UNICEF and UNDP and NGOs staff working with minors at high-risk for recruitment into illegal armed groups.

IOM presented the "Vulnerability, Risk and Opportunity Map" (Mapa de Vulnerabilidad, Riesgo y Oportunidad), a methodology aimed at helping local governments and civil society to work together to tackle and prevent forced conscription.

 

 

Croatia

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

www.dol.gov/ilab/media/reports/iclp/tda2004/croatia.htm

[accessed 30 January 2011]

CURRENT GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS TO ELIMINATE THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOR - In June 2004, a working group on child trafficking was established.  The Child Trafficking Prevention Program is being implemented by the Center for Social Policy Initiatives, a national NGO.  Modules have been developed on child trafficking, child exploitation, sexual exploitation of children, child pornography, and the worst forms of child labor.  Teachers have been trained to use the program and a pilot project is underway in 5 elementary schools in Zagreb.  The government also works with international organizations to assist trafficking victims, and cooperates with other governments in the region.

 

 

Estonia

Ambassador Joseph M. DeThomas' opening remarks at The Estonian Women's Studies and Resource Centre Conference Radisson SAS Hotel, Tallinn Wednesday, February 18, 2004

Embassy of the United States, Estonia, February 18, 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 5 September 2011]

Third, we need to prevent the crime. Criminals do not kidnap the majority of victims of trafficking in Europe, nor do friends or relatives sell them into their fate. (This does happen on a massive scale elsewhere in the world.) They are duped into participating. Many young women, boys and girls are duped into believing they are being recruited to honest work abroad. Once they accept offers from these recruiters, they are trapped. This is happening as we speak in this country. We need to warn and educate people about this practice.

 

 

Ethiopia

IOM press briefing notes 23 Apr 2004: Haiti, Ethiopia, Zambia

Spokesperson: Jean-Philippe Chauzy, International Organization for Migration IOM, 23 Apr 2004

reliefweb.int/report/ethiopia/iom-press-briefing-notes-23-apr-2004-haiti-ethiopia-zambia

[accessed 13 June 2013]

The overall objective of this US-funded project is to support the Ethiopian Government's efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and the prevention of human trafficking within and/or from Ethiopia. It has the aim of sensitizing students in grades 7-10 on pertinent issues regarding trafficking and HIV/AIDS while encouraging them to pursue their education, both in schools and within the informal sector.

Five hundred thousand exercise books and ten thousand T-shirts containing simplified messages illustrated by cartoons warning students of the risks of migrating for work using illegal channels, unprotected sex and dropping out of school were distributed in the 185 schools since September 2003.

 

 

Finland

Curbing Human Trafficking

Vatican Radio RV, 23 June 2006

news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5103132.stm

[accessed 5 February 2011]

The Finnish Parliament has approved new legislation aimed at curbing human trafficking in the sex trade. Under the new law, a client of a prostitute could face six months in prison if police and magistrates can prove the clients knew the prostitute was forced to sell her services

 

 

Hungary

The Department of Labor’s 2003 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2004

www.dol.gov/ilab/media/reports/iclp/tda2003/hungary.htm

[accessed 8 February 2011]

GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS TO ELIMINATE THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOR - The Government of Hungary is working with IOM and partner agencies to implement a trafficking prevention program in schools.  Through consultations with NGOs, the government has also provided anti-trafficking sensitization training to police, border guards, and consular officials.  In 2003, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, in conjunction with the Government of Hungary, established a shelter for unaccompanied minors in order to prevent them from being recruited by traffickers.

 

 

India

Never too young to be sold

Sreyashi Dastidar, The Telegraph, October 16, 2007

www.telegraphindia.com/1071016/asp/opinion/story_8436850.asp

[accessed 10 February 2011]

One wishes the circumstances were the same, but they seldom are. How does one equate a girl lured away from a village in Meghalaya to a brothel in Delhi with the one pushed into beedi-binding by her own parents just so there is enough money to feed all the mouths in the family? Or a boy thrown into the laps of paedophiliac foreign tourists in Goa with one who runs away from starvation and poverty at home, to be picked up and employed by a brick-kiln owner who gives him a paltry daily wage and lunch? Which arm of the State — women and child development, labour, police, or home affairs if there is border-crossing — has failed to do its job in each of these cases, and which is responsible for ensuring that the trafficked person gets a livelihood and a respectable life?

This is why trafficking is such a tricky crime in developing countries with their many areas of darkness. In Haryana, for instance, where it is acceptable to destroy female foetuses and kill baby girls, young women are trafficked from Bengal and the Northeast and forced into marriage to keep the family line going. How does one, in the absence of a complaint from the girl or her family, initiate criminal proceedings against those who claim the girl as their daughter-in-law?

 

 

Kazakhstan

Atyrau authorities plan to prevent human trafficking

Andrey Sokolov, Kazinform National Information Agency, July 14, 2006

www.kazinform.kz/eng/article/2143365

[accessed 16 February 2011]

Presentation of plan of measures on struggle and prevention of crimes connected with human trafficking for 2006-2008 took place in the Atyrau oblast (a region of Kazakhstan).Local authorities plan to hold actions with the help of mass media in order to raise public awareness, arrange seminars and so on. They also intend to strengthen control over illegal migration of foreign citizens to the region, check activity of employment agencies and organizations rendering services to the population on preparation of documents of Kazakhstan’s citizens leaving abroad.

 

 

Malawi

Human trafficking is a reality in Malawi

South African Migration Project SAMP, Queen's University (Canada), Daily Times, 2006-08-25

www.queensu.ca/samp/migrationnews/article.php?Mig_News_ID=3559&Mig_News_Issue=20&Mig_News_Cat=5

[accessed 19 February 2011]

In order to combat the multifaceted problem of human trafficking, interventions must be multi-disciplinary and multi sectoral. They must among others include; the legal sector -implementing all international human rights conventions and treaties, developing regional and bilateral MOU’s with neighbouring countries on prevention and detection of trafficking, strengthening the national legal framework through the development of specific anti-trafficking laws and regulations, and strengthening law enforcement through active prosecution of trafficking offenders.

Also the social welfare and health sector -improving access to high quality and appropriate social and protection services for trafficking victims, providing health services to those infected with diseases etc; community based initiatives - supporting small income-generating projects in village communities; gender mainstreaming- raising awareness about gender sensitivity within the court systems, and among police and other law enforcement officials, as well as raising awareness on the issues throughout the general public;

And the education sector - increasing awareness about human trafficking by providing education for all. Improving the existing educational systems and ensure vocational and technical education structures and mechanisms accessible to out of school youth. Provide relevant education and training for labour markets, particularly to youth in areas of high mobility and/or vulnerable groups; the migration sector - strengthening cross-border initiatives, enhancing the number and quality of repatriation programmes, improving situation of trafficked victims in receiving country (avoiding detention and expulsion of victims), focusing on key factors which leads to the migration to neighbouring countries; and the labour sector - improving job opportunities and strengthening national labour laws. All these must be included to combat the multifaceted problem of human trafficking.

 

 

Mali

Attempts to prevent human trafficking are making conditions worse for voluntary migrants

The Medical News, 5 June 2004 -- Source: http://press.psprings.co.uk/bmj/june/edd1369.pdf

www.news-medical.net/news/2004/06/05/2190.aspx

[accessed 20 February 2011]

A survey of close to 1000 migrants in Mali found that only four had been deceived, exploited, or not paid for their labour. Rather, young people voluntarily sought employment abroad to experience urban lifestyles, learn new languages, and accumulate possessions.

 

 

Mexico

Annual Report Of Activities By The Anti-Trafficking In Persons Section Of The Organization Of American States - April 2005 To March 2006 [DOC]

Sixth Meeting of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas, April 24 to 26, 2006, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

scm.oas.org/doc_public/ENGLISH/HIST_06/MJ00334E08.DOC

[accessed 25 August 2014]

MEXICO - The Anti-Human Trafficking Workshop for Media and the Entertainment Industry Seminar was held in Mexico in December 2005. This event helped professionals in the entertainment industry focus on the subject of human trafficking and, in particular, the situation of trafficking victims, in order to assist writers and editors in this field to incorporate realistic depictions of this scourge in their story lines. The result of this undertaking was heightened public awareness about the topic and increased prevention. As the entertainment industry more fully comprehends human trafficking and portrays its real nature, the general public will be better informed and persons potentially vulnerable to the crime will be forewarned about the phenomenon.

 

 

Panama

Nations Make Progress Against Trafficking in Persons, U.S. Finds

Charlene Porter, Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State, 14 June 2004

www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0406/S00181/nations-make-progress-against-trafficking-people.htm

[accessed 7 October 2013]

The world's most comprehensive report on trafficking in persons shows governments are making some progress in their responses to this form of organized criminal activity -- often called modern-day slavery -- with stronger laws, increased convictions and greater protections for victims.

Consistent with its objective of inspiring action against human trafficking, the TIP report also issues praise for localities that have adopted "best practices" in their strides to prevent trafficking, provide for victims or prosecute traffickers themselves. Panama has passed a law that requires businesses in the tourist industry to inform travelers about laws against child pornography and sex tourism. The city of Madrid has taken strides to reduce both prostitution and trafficking by targeting the customers of these illicit endeavors, while at the same time engaging in prevention and victim assistance efforts.

 

 

Spain

ECPAT Spain launches a new campaign against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

Madrid (Spain), June 2nd, 2004 – ECPAT Spain Consortium, Secretary of Communication

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

The campaign’s main goal is the prevention of CSEC by raising the awareness of people travelling from Spain to tourist destinations known to offer the opportunity to engage in sexual relationships with minors.

 

 

Slovakia

Trafficking In Human Beings In Slovakia - Country Assessment [PDF]

International Organization for Migration IOM, 2003

www.iom.pl/res/files/traffickstop/lf_nl_7slovakia.pdf

[access date unavailable]

INTRODUCTION - TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS - Trafficking in women first appeared in Slovakia after 1989. The new freedom of movement was generally positive but, on the other hand, it also coincided with some negative phenomena such as growth of trafficking in human beings mainly for the purpose of sexual exploitation. According to the police statistics (which provide figures only in terms of “number of cases”), trafficking in women from Slovakia is continuously growing. Also, due to the lack of job opportunities in Slovakia and the poor economic situation, labor migration, legal or illegal has been on the rise especially among young people. Therefore there is an essential need to take necessary steps in order to alleviate the problem as well as to adopt adequate preventive measures, which would eliminate the risks connected with working abroad.

 

 

Sri Lanka

ECPAT Sri Lanka/PEACE [PDF]

ECPAT International annual report - July 2002 - June 2003

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 11 September 2011]

[page 109]

ECPAT Sri Lanka/PEACE - PEACE was launched in 1989 against the commercial sexual exploitation and abuse of children by both local and foreign paedophiles. It has a 20 member Consultative Committee, a 5 member Core Committee, a network of Children’s/Youth Clubs, and a host of volunteers carrying out its aims and objectives. Its objectives are to create awareness of the problem of sexual exploitation of children and child labour in Sri Lanka; to influence National Policy related to the protection of children; and to prevent children from being lured or forced into prostitution and hazardous employment.

 

 

Sweden

"Harder punishments needed" for men who use sex slaves

The Local, 13 Jun 05

www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=1597&date=20050613

[accessed 27 December 2010]

Johan Linander, the Center Party’s justice spokesman, argues in a report released on Monday that anyone who pays to have sex with a woman who is obviously being held by force should be considered to have raped her.  “If one man pays another man who then unlocks a door to a woman, it should be clear what is happening,” says Linander.

 

 

Sweden & USA

United States and Sweden Join Forces to Protect Women and Girls from Sex Trafficking

U.S. Department Of State, Office of the Spokesman, March 25, 2005 -- Media Note

2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2005/43838.htm

[accessed 16 August 2012]

The Prevention Project will address gaps in gender equality, the demand for sex trafficking victims, and the connection between human trafficking and prostitution.  The bilateral program also will help promote equality between women and men as a fundamental part of democracy and human rights.

The United States and Sweden are contributing approximately $330,000 each over two years
to the project, which will operate in Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Russia, and Serbia and Montenegro.

 

 

Thailand

Education may prevent human trafficking

Casey Northcutt, The Murray State News, February 21, 2008

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here

[accessed 28 August 2011]

Hundreds of thousands of men and women in northern Thailand are captured each year and forced to work in farms, sweatshops and brothels, according to Humantrafficking.org.  Malarin Visetrojana, English as a Second Language student from Bangkok, Thailand, said children especially are captured by this trap. In the rural northern regions, many families are so poor that instead of sending their children to school, they send them to cities to work as servants for the rich. Sometimes, "middlemen" approach a child's parents, pretending to represent a wealthy family in search of help.  "They know that the children will go to work as servants or as housemaids for big families," Visetrojana said. "They don't know that their children will be prostitutes."

 

 

Togo

Combating Child Trafficking in Togo through Education (COMBAT)

Project Number: TGO028

www.care.org/careswork/projects/TGO028.asp?

[accessed 30 December 2010]

[also see Page 23 – Togo -- www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/CARE_AR_2005.pdf

PROJECT DESCRIPTION - CARE's COMBAT project joins in the elimination of child trafficking in Togo, particularly among girls in Central and Maritime regions, through improved and extended programs of education and social support. COMBAT targets children 5-14 years old and is implemented in collaboration with the two local organizations that were CARE's partners in PEP (above) and the international group Terre des Hommes. COMBAT contributes to a multidimensional effort against trafficking; complements the government's efforts to create a policy and enforcement environment; mobilizes communities as the key actors in the social-cultural change required for effective prevention; revitalizes the education system as a cornerstone of prevention and re-integration; deploys NGOs as effective intermediaries and complementary service providers; facilitates coordination and collaboration at all levels; and works with and under the auspices of national and international efforts such as International Labor Organization and International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor.

 

 

Ukraine

Harbor Springs man helps fight abuse and human trafficking in Ukraine

Louise Nelle, News-Review staff writer, Petoskey News, Harbor Springs, September 07, 2007

articles.petoskeynews.com/2007-09-07/human-trafficking_24023640

[accessed 5 January 2011]

In terms of human trafficking, Wiser said the committee supports groups directly involved with victims. They are also working to prevent traffickers from receiving information about orphans.  “Traffickers are getting this information on when these kids get released and then they target them. We want to seal this information so it’s not available,” Wiser said.

 

 

Vietnam

Vietnam Justice Department Issues Regulations on Foreign Marriages

Stop Violence Against Women, The Advocates for Human Rights, July 30, 2007

-- Source: "Ha Noi Reins in Marriages to Combat Human Trafficking," Viet Nam News, 19 July 2007

stopvaw.org/vietnam_trafficking.html

[accessed 17 January 2011]

In an effort to combat trafficking in women and sexual exploitation, the Ha Noi Justice department has strengthened its efforts to investigate new marriages with foreign citizens by promulgating new regulations. Three hundred officials were informed of the procedures to interview applicant couples and verify the authenticity of their unions. The regulations, which are part of the National Programme on Crime Prevention, seek to prevent fraudulent marriages that conceal human trafficking.

 

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