Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery

Lecture Resources

 

[Lecture Resources | Resources for Teachers | Country-by-Country Reports ]

Exploitation of Refugees

 

*** FEATURED ARTICLES ***

China

The refugees forced to be sex slaves in China

Richard Spencer in Seoul, Telegraph,  01 Oct 2005

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/1499675/The-refugees-forced-to-be-sex-slaves-in-China.html

[accessed 28 January 2011]

The women who flee North Korea believe nothing could be worse than their dictatorship's famine and labor camps.  But many change their minds after they cross the Tumen River into the "safety" of China, smuggled by middlemen who promise safe passage.  "I was locked into a house and raped every night," said Kim Chun-ae, a matronly 51-year-old. "My teenage daughter was sold three times by traffickers. She was 'recycled'."

 

 

Egypt

Organ trafficking on the rise in Egypt, says new report

Sarah Sheffer, Bikya Masr (Egyptian: resellable clutter), Cairo, 12 December 2011

www.masress.com/en/bikyamasr/50684

[accessed 13 June 2013]

A shocking new report by the Coalition for Organ Failure Solutions (COFS) Egypt indicates that organ trafficking is on the rise in the country, as traffickers continue to target Sudanese refugees and other asylum seekers in the nation.  According to the report, entitled "Sudanese Victims of Organ Trafficking in Egypt," traffickers remove the kidneys of their victims "either by inducing consent, coercion, or outright theft."  The report was written based on case studies of 57 Sudanese refugees, including men, women, and children, who said they were victims of organ trafficking.

COFS estimates that there are thousands of victims of organ trafficking in Egypt. Refugees are the most common victims, as traffickers seek to exploit their insecure legal status in the country.

 

 

Pakistan

Stop Child Slave Auctions in Pakistan

Andrew Bushell, "Sale of Children Thrives in Pakistan", Washington Times

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 10 September 2011]

[scroll down to BACKGROUND INFORMATION]

As the war in Afghanistan continues, many children fleeing into Pakistan face a life worse than one under the Taliban: slavery. Desperate and starving, these Afghan child refugees are sold to or abuducted by middlemen.

They are then sold again in bustling slave auctions to the highest bidder. The boys are used as domestic or manual laborers; some are shipped to the Persian Gulf, where they are used as camel jockeys. The price for the girls is euphemized as a dowry. But they never marry; instead, the girls are used for sex - in a brothel, as a concubine, or in a harem.

 

 

UK

Damning report on migrants delayed as government fears poll backlash

Hsiao-Hung Pai, The Guardian, 3 February 2005

www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2005/feb/03/immigrationasylumandrefugees.immigrationandasylum

[accessed 4 January 2011]

The publication of a ground-breaking report on forced labour and the exploitation of migrant workers in Britain has been delayed after attempts by the government to hold it back until after the general election.

It catalogues coercive techniques used by private employers to force migrants to work for low wages and in poor conditions, from physical and sexual violence to debt bondage and blackmail.

 

 

*** ARCHIVES ***

China

The refugees forced to be sex slaves in China

Richard Spencer in Seoul, Telegraph,  01 Oct 2005

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/1499675/The-refugees-forced-to-be-sex-slaves-in-China.html

[accessed 28 January 2011]

The women who flee North Korea believe nothing could be worse than their dictatorship's famine and labor camps.  But many change their minds after they cross the Tumen River into the "safety" of China, smuggled by middlemen who promise safe passage.  "I was locked into a house and raped every night," said Kim Chun-ae, a matronly 51-year-old. "My teenage daughter was sold three times by traffickers. She was 'recycled'."

 

 

China

How Can I be Sold Like This? [PDF]

Donna M. Hughes, National Review, July 19, 2005

www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/trafficking_nk_refugees.pdf

[accessed 29 April 2012]

Women and children are increasingly the majority of refugees crossing the river into China. If they can locate a friend or relative's house, they have a chance at finding a safe haven. But if the ethnic Korean Chinese traffickers find them first, they are abducted and sold, either to men as informal wives or concubines or to karaoke clubs for prostitution. Their price and destination are determined by their age and appearance.

 

 

Egypt

Organ trafficking on the rise in Egypt, says new report

Sarah Sheffer, Bikya Masr (Egyptian: resellable clutter), Cairo, 12 December 2011

www.masress.com/en/bikyamasr/50684

[accessed 13 June 2013]

A shocking new report by the Coalition for Organ Failure Solutions (COFS) Egypt indicates that organ trafficking is on the rise in the country, as traffickers continue to target Sudanese refugees and other asylum seekers in the nation.  According to the report, entitled "Sudanese Victims of Organ Trafficking in Egypt," traffickers remove the kidneys of their victims "either by inducing consent, coercion, or outright theft."  The report was written based on case studies of 57 Sudanese refugees, including men, women, and children, who said they were victims of organ trafficking.

COFS estimates that there are thousands of victims of organ trafficking in Egypt. Refugees are the most common victims, as traffickers seek to exploit their insecure legal status in the country.

 

 

Guinea

Guinea: A Window On West Africa’s War-Weary Children

UNICEF Press Centre, Conakry/Geneva, 4 November 2003

www.unicef.org/media/media_15421.html

[accessed 8 February 2011]

UNICEF today said that reports from border monitors and NGOs reveal that Guinea is becoming a burgeoning refuge for thousands of children fleeing West Africa’s wars. Children fleeing recruitment, violence, and exploitation; crisscrossing borders; beginning as unaccompanied children in one place, becoming child soldiers in another, and refugee minors in a third. There’s an opportunity to break the cycle that sees these children return to the bondage of war, servitude, and sexual exploitation in neighboring countries.

 

 

Indonesia

INDONESIA: Indonesian military, police accused of human trafficking

Asia Pacific, ABC Radio Australia, 2/08/2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 6 September 2011]

There are claims that the Indonesian military and police have been extorting bribes from Acehnese asylum seekers and selling them into slavery. The claims have been backed by refugee advocates working closely with the UN refugee agency in Malaysia, where thousands of Acehnese are facing expulsion under a government crackdown on illegal workers.

 

 

Indonesia

Tsunami orphans available for the right price

Mathias Hariyadi, AsiaNews.it, 01/02/2005

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 6 September 2011]

Volunteers from the Muslim-based Justice and Prosperity Party (PKS) claim that "human lives" are being bought and sold in some of the refugee camps in North Sumatra's provincial capital of Medan.  Unidentified individuals have seemingly tried to buy tsunami-orphaned children or children whose parents are missing in order to resell them.

 

 

Malaysia

Take trafficking of refugees seriously

Alice Nah, The Malaysian Insider, January 22, 2009

www.themalaysianinsider.com/opinion/article/Take-trafficking-of-refugees-seriously/

[accessed 20 February 2011]

www.malaysianbar.org.my/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=20869

[accessed 22 September 2016]

Last week, the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee drew attention to the trafficking of migrants and refugees at the Malaysia-Thai border. They highlighted the shocking fact that Malaysian law enforcement officials are complicit in the “sale” of people to human smugglers/traffickers.

WHAT HAPPENS AT THE BORDER? - Deportees who have returned to Malaysia describe that they are brought from immigration detention depots to locations at the border under guard and in handcuffs in vehicles. When they disembark, they are forced to walk into areas guarded by human smugglers/traffickers. They have no way of escape. They are caught and kept under armed surveillance in confined, crowded and isolated locations, often deep in the jungle. Some women are raped repeatedly.   They are given handphones and instructed to contact family/friends to raise money for their release; they are beaten and threatened into submission. Prices vary between RM1,400 and RM2,500. Some who have dared to question why prices are so high have been told that this covers the amount paid to immigration officials. They are told to deposit the money into specific bank accounts. Once the money is deposited, they are brought in cars to designated locations and released. It costs more to be sent back to Malaysia; some are released in Thailand.   Those who are unable to pay are sold — men to work on fishing boats and plantations, and women to brothels or “private owners” who keep them in servitude for sex and/or forced labour. Those who have been forced to work on boats tell harrowing tales of having seen fellow workers shot and thrown overboard if they protest.

 

 

North Korea – China

The refugees forced to be sex slaves in China

Richard Spencer in Seoul, The Telegraph, 01 Oct 2005

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/1499675/The-refugees-forced-to-be-sex-slaves-in-China.html

[accessed 14 December 2010]

The women who flee North Korea believe nothing could be worse than their dictatorship's famine and labor camps.  But many change their minds after they cross the Tumen River into the "safety" of China, smuggled by middlemen who promise safe passage.  "I was locked into a house and raped every night," said Kim Chun-ae, a matronly 51-year-old. "My teenage daughter was sold three times by traffickers. She was 'recycled'."

 

 

Pakistan

Stop Child Slave Auctions in Pakistan

Andrew Bushell, "Sale of Children Thrives in Pakistan", Washington Times

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 10 September 2011]

[scroll down to BACKGROUND INFORMATION]

As the war in Afghanistan continues, many children fleeing into Pakistan face a life worse than one under the Taliban: slavery. Desperate and starving, these Afghan child refugees are sold to or abuducted by middlemen.

They are then sold again in bustling slave auctions to the highest bidder. The boys are used as domestic or manual laborers; some are shipped to the Persian Gulf, where they are used as camel jockeys. The price for the girls is euphemized as a dowry. But they never marry; instead, the girls are used for sex - in a brothel, as a concubine, or in a harem.

 

 

Rwanda

VI. Children Without Parents: Victims of Abuse and Exploitation

Human Rights Watch Report, Vol. 15, No. 5 (A), Rwanda Lasting Wounds: Consequences of Genocide and War for Rwanda's Children, March 2003

www.hrw.org/reports/2003/rwanda0403/rwanda0403-06.htm

[accessed 20 December 2010]

Perhaps the most devastating consequence of the genocide and war in Rwanda is the hundreds of thousands of children who have been orphaned or otherwise left without parental care since 1994. During the genocide and afterwards in refugee or displaced person camps, these children were left to cope with atrocities taking place around them and to fight for their own survival. Today, they struggle to rebuild their lives with little help in a society that has been completely devastated. With many living in poverty, they confront the daily challenges of feeding, sheltering, and clothing themselves; trying to attend school; or trying to earn a living. In the meantime, thousands of vulnerable children are exploited for their labor and property and denied the right to education.

 

 

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone - Human Rights

Aisling Ireland, BellaOnline

www.bellaonline.com/articles/art24082.asp

[accessed 22 December 2010]

Sierra Leone is probably is the poorest country of the world due to the ravaging civil war and the terrorist activities of the Revolutionary United Front, or RUF. For both men and women, living under these conditions is producing hundreds of thousands refugees and internal displacement. Generally speaking, it is difficult to differentiate between women's rights and human rights. Women and children are known to be the principal war victims. women and Children are often submitted to rape, sexual slavery, forced labour, torture, mutilation and forced recrutiation by the RUF. The RUF is notoriously known to use terror against the civil population, especially Women and Children. Violations such as these are one of their principal war tactics. The biggest UN peacekeeping force in history is present, so now exists some hope of peace in the country.

 

 

South Africa

Seduction, Sale & Slavery: Trafficking In Women & Children For Sexual Exploitation In Southern Africa [PDF]

Jonathan Martens, Maciej ‘Mac’ Pieczkowski, Bernadette van Vuuren-Smyth, International Organization for Migration (IOM) Regional Office for Southern Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, May 2003

www.unicef.org.mz/cpd/references/40-TraffickingReport3rdEd.pdf

[accessed 25 April 2012]

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - The major findings may be summarized as follows:

Refugees are both victims and perpetrators of trafficking to South Africa. As male refugees encounter unemployment and xenophobia in South Africa, some choose to recruit female relatives from their countries of origin to South Africa. These women are usually 25 years and older, married and have children. Individual refugee traffickers are assisted by ethnically-based syndicates in delivering a recruiting letter to the victim in her country of origin, escorting her to South Africa, and sexually assaulting her as an initiation to sex work should she resist upon arrival. The refugee trafficker takes the earnings the woman receives as a sex worker and, to protect his investment, he assists her in applying for refugee status to prevent deportation if police detain her.

 

 

Sweden

Chapter 2: Hambaar: The Smugglers' Network

U.N. Integrated Regional Information Networks IRIN, Web Special on Separated Somali Children, 1 May 2006

www.irinnews.org/indepthmain.aspx?InDepthId=44&ReportId=71597

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 8 March 2015]

International criminal networks - There is a paucity of hard information on child smuggling and trafficking. An official of Interpol told IRIN that that while there were major investigations carried out on prostitution rings, pornography and international criminal cartels, relatively little was known about the international child trafficking networks.

In 2001, 87 unaccompanied minors in Sweden went 'missing' - meaning they arrived, were registered or accommodated by the authorities, but then disappeared to an unknown destination. There is speculation that international organized crime accounts for a small number of these 'missing' children.

All professionals working with unaccompanied children agree that the children have become more vulnerable as communication technology becomes more sophisticated. According to staff in the Carlslund refugee centre in Stockholm, almost every child gets a mobile phone three or four days after arrival - "we don't know from where, or how". There is a debate in Sweden on how far the refugee child's liberties should be restricted in the interest of safety.

 

 

Syria

Iraqi children forced into prostitution in Syria

Business Travellers against Human Trafficking, Global news on human trafficking, 6/24/2005

businesstravellers-org.web26.winsvr.net/Home/tabid/36/EntryID/987/Default.aspx

[accessed 28 December 2010]

[scroll down]

There is growing evidence of Iraqi children being used as prostitutes in Syria. It is estimated that there are around 700,000 Iraqi refugees in Syria, many of whom are struggling in situations of poverty. Cases are emerging of families sending their teenage daughters to work as prostitutes, in order to survive.  Abdelhamid El Ouali, the representative for the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees in Damascus said “”It’s a serious problem because there are young girls doing this — 11, 12, 13 years old,” There is little or no discussion of this in Syria, and the government does not release figures on prostitution.

 

 

UK

Damning report on migrants delayed as government fears poll backlash

Hsiao-Hung Pai, The Guardian, 3 February 2005

www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2005/feb/03/immigrationasylumandrefugees.immigrationandasylum

[accessed 4 January 2011]

The publication of a ground-breaking report on forced labour and the exploitation of migrant workers in Britain has been delayed after attempts by the government to hold it back until after the general election.

It catalogues coercive techniques used by private employers to force migrants to work for low wages and in poor conditions, from physical and sexual violence to debt bondage and blackmail.

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